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Question :

Is Mohammad (pbuh) was an ordinary man or prophet? What is the proof of him being a Prophet?

Answer :

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was and continued to be an ordinary human being throughout his life. This is indeed what he has been required to declare to his people when they made absurd demands that he should accomplish some supernatural things to prove his prophethood.

Allah instructs him in Surah 17:93 entitled "The Night Journey":

“....Say: "Glory to my Lord! Am I aught but a man,- a messenger?"

The final verse of Surah 18:110 entitled "The Cave" gives this instruction to the Prophet: "Say: I am but a mortal man like all of you. It has been revealed to me that your God is the One and only God...." (Cave 18:110)

In both the verses, the emphasis is placed on the fact that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was an ordinary human being, a mortal, who had been chosen for the noble task of being Allah's messenger. He himself made no claim whatsoever to being anything other than a human being who has been given a divine message to convey to mankind. If we were to claim that he had a superhuman status, should we not ask what status would that be?

We can only think of an angel, or that of a god. Far being from him to make any claim to godhood. We should never contemplate for a moment that anyone, including Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), had any divine status of any sort. The only alternative would be that he was an angel. He certainly was not, because he had all the characteristics of human beings. Let us remember that angels have not been given the power to choose attitudes and actions. They simply ".... over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe who do not disobey Allah whatever He commands them, and they do what they are bidden." (At-Tahrim 66:6)

It simply does not occur to an angel to disobey. Human beings, on the other hand, have always the choice of doing what God likes them to do or of disobeying Him. This ability to choose is the distinctive quality of human beings, which enables them to earn admittance into heaven if they consistently choose what pleases Allah. They certainly experience temptation to disobey Him and it is through rising above that temptation that they prove their worth. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was certainly a human being and he shared with all humans all their qualities and characteristics.

He would love and hate, experience happiness and distress, satisfaction and irritation, calmness and anger, etc. The Prophet was great because he was able to conduct his life in the way he did despite experiencing all the feelings and emotions of human beings and working within their limitations. You say that he was extraordinary because he did extraordinary things. He certainly was favored with receiving Allah's message and being assigned the task of conveying it. That is why we are required to declare that we believe that he was Allah's messenger. If we do not, then we are not Muslims. But that as far as it goes. He gave us a living example of what a perfect human being is like. We can follow his example in every respect. Indeed, we should try to do so.

But we should remember that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did not choose to have revelations, it was Allah who chose him to be His last messenger to mankind and sent down His revelations to him. Nor did Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) have any say in his ascension to heaven: it was Allah who wished to favor him with that to give him reassurance, at a time when he certainly needed that reassurance. He decidedly did not meet with Allah nor did he converse with Him. Allah only revealed what He wished to reveal to him through the Archangel Gabriel.

What we are told about his ascension to heaven in the Quran is:

“Glory be to Him Who made His servant to go on a night from the Sacred Mosque to the remote mosque of which We have blessed the precincts, so that We may show to him some of Our signs; surely He is the Hearing, the Seeing”.   (Al-Isra 17:1)

It is that he "has seen some of the greatest signs of his Lord." No human beings has ever spoken to Allah directly except Prophet Moses. We must not confuse matters. When we stress the humanity of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), we are not being disrespectful to him. Indeed, we love him and respect him so much because he has been a means for us to have divine guidance which enables us to earn reward from Allah and ensures for us a happier life in the next world.

Another way of Mohammaed (PBUH) prophethood

You ask how can we prove the Prophet's existence. Do we need to prove it? How to prove the existence of any historical personality? Is it not by the reports we have about him and the events in which he took part or he helped accomplish?

We have a full record of the life of the Prophet. We also have reports of all his actions, from the most private ones to those of state and public interest. In the case of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), however, we also have the radical change in the Arabian society and in human life as a whole which he brought about. Perhaps what you actually mean is how to prove that he actually was a messenger of Allah and that his message was the final one addressing mankind as a whole. In this case, I have to refer you to the Quran which is the ultimate proof of all that. I have several points to make here but I can only refer to them very briefly, because of the limitation of space.

The Quran was revealed at a time when the Arabs gave so much importance to literary excellence, particularly in poetry. A poet of high standard was a source of pride for his tribe. In the tribal warfare, poetry was as important a weapon as swords, spears and arrows. When the Prophet received his revelations and recited them to the people of Makkah, they listened to something totally new. It was not poetry, but its literary excellence surpassed everything they knew. They realized that it could not have been composed by a human being. Even the staunchest of the enemies of Islam acknowledged that.

Moreover, the Quran was so different in style, rhythm and use of imagery from the Hadith which was the Prophet's own expression. It is not possible for any human being to use two widely different styles to express the same subject matter and to do that so consistently over a period of 23 years, which was the length of the time during which the Quran was revealed. Moreover, the Quran mentions certain facts which were totally unknown to mankind at the time of its revelation and only very recently we started to discover them.

One example is the details the Quran gives about the various stages of the development of the fetus, from the moment it is conceived to the time of its birth. These details are now scientifically proven by the use of sophisticated technology, such as ultrasound scanning. The Prophet had no means of knowing these, except through revelation from Allah, the Creator of man and the universe. Another example is the clear reference to the fact recently proven by scientists:

When a strait separates two seas, as the Red Sea is separated from the Indian Ocean by the Strait of Bab Al-Mandab, the two seas are actually separated to the extent that the maritime life in one is so different from that in the other. "It is Allah who has created two bodies of free flowing water. One sweet and palpable and the other salt and bitter  and between them, He has made a barrier which is forbidden to be trespassed." (Al-Furqan 25:53)

In Surah 55, Verses 19 and 20, which may be rendered in translation as follows: "He has given freedom to the two seas so that they might meet; (19) yet between them is a barrier which they not transgress." (Ar-Rehman 55:19-20)

If Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did not receive this from Allah Himself, how could he have known it when he never came near the sea in his life? Moreover, the Quran laid down new legislation in various social matters which represented a great departure from what prevailed in Arabia and in surrounding countries and states. Yet there was no earthly reason for the enactment of such legislation which any reformer would have hesitated to introduce because they were bound to upset the social balance. Perhaps, the best example of these is the high position Islam gives to women, bring them to a level of equality with men, with only a few differences of secondary importance, necessitated by the different role they have to fulfill in human life.

As you realize, the Quran is preserved intact. Allah has guaranteed that it would remain in its original form for all time. We recite it in prayer and at other times. Its recitation earns us reward. Yet the Quran contains a reproach to the Prophet for a step he made. If the Quran was of the Prophet's own composition, would he have included such reproach? If he recognized his mistake, would it not have been courageous of him just to admit it? Would he have included such reproach in his book of worship?

Allah says: "Now if he (whom We have entrusted with it) had dared to attribute some of his own sayings to Us, (44) We would indeed have seized him by his right hand (45) then would have indeed have cut his life vein (46) and none of you could have saved him." (Al-Haaqa 69:44-47)

If the Quran was of Muhammad's (PBUH) own invention, far be it from him to do so, would he have included such a threat to himself? Moreover, I want also to refer to the fact that the Prophet demonstrated his absolute faith in the Quran as the word of Allah. The Quran tells the Prophet, that he had nothing to fear from human beings because Allah protects him.

"O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord, for if thou do it not, thou wilt not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect thee from mankind. Lo! Allah guides not the disbelieving folk." (Al-Maeda 5:67)

In the battle of Hunain, the Muslim army was in retreat and the Prophet in a highly vulnerable position. The disbelievers would have sacrificed any number in order to kill him. Yet, he stood on his horse, calling on his companions to rally to the cause of Islam. He drew very close to his enemy on purpose. Anyone else in his position could have been easily killed, but he did not even try to have any cover. This sort of attitude demonstrated the strength of his faith. When Allah tells him that he will be protected, he was certain that nothing would happen to him and he went extremely close to his enemies as if he was inviting them to kill him, hoping to persuade them of the truth of his message when they related his action to what is said in the Quran. No one other than a messenger from Allah and a prophet would have done that.

All Prophets come with signs and evidences furnished by God that they truly are what they claim to be. Among these signs are miracles witnessed by the people that defy the laws of nature.

Generally, miracles are experienced only by the people who were there when the miracle actually occurred. God, however, furnished the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) with a miracle that would endure for all time. That miracle is the Quran. It is appropriate that the final Messenger should have an enduring miracle, since his Message is binding on Creation until the Last Day.

The Quran is the revealed word of God that God has preserved from corruption. The Quran reads:

“Surely We have revealed the Reminder and We will most surely be its guardian.” (Al-Hijr 15:9)

“No falsehood can approach it from before or behind it. It is sent down by One Full of Wisdom, Worthy of Praise.” (Fussilat 41:42)

In the Quran, God challenges the Arabs to produce something like it. “Say: ‘If the whole of humanity and the Jinn were to gather together to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support.” (Al-Isra 17:88)

This challenge was reduced even further to the point where only one chapter of the Quran was needed: “And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call on your witnesses besides God if you are truthful. (23) But if you do not do it, and never shall you do it, then fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the unbelievers.” (Al-Baqarah 2:23-24)

This is Islam’s eternal miracle. The challenge remains open and unmet to this very day. There are many aspects of the Quran’s miraculous inimitability. Among these are its eloquence and its style.

The Arabs were given this challenge and they were the masters of their language and were well known for their eloquence. Not one of them, however, could produce a single chapter comparable to the Quran.

Today, we are conveying this challenge once again to all humanity. This challenge has stood for over 1400 years and continues to be a testimony to the truth of the Quran and the Messenger who brought it. The enemies of Islam have always had in this challenge a perfect opportunity to prove Islam false. They definitely had enough reason to try. It would have surely been much less strenuous for them to pick up the pen and write then to pick up the sword and die trying to suppress Islam. It would have been far less costly than the time and money they spent on fighting against Islam.

We feel that by conveying this challenge we have done our duty. It becomes the duty of the one who hears it to hear the Quran in its entirety and not to rely on unbelievers for their information but go directly to the source.

Another proof that Muhammad (PBUH) is God’s Messenger is the strength of the religion that he was sent with and the fact that it has been preserved from corruption. We can see all the scholarly disciplines that developed around it over the ages and how Islam was able to respond to all the changes that took place throughout history. Islam has retained its strength while the Muslim world has passed through periods of strength and weakness and of freedom and occupation.

Among the evidence that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is a Prophet of God is the fact that his coming was foretold by the Prophets who came before. In their books and their statements they described him and his followers. They even mentioned him by name. The Quran states this fact in the following verses:

“And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: "O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you, confirming the Law (which came) before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad." But when he came to them with Clear Signs, they said, "this is evident sorcery!" (As-Saff 61:6)

“Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, whom they will find described in the Torah and the Gospel which are with them. He will enjoin on them that which is right and forbid them that which is wrong. He will make lawful for them all good things and prohibit for them only the foul; and he will relieve them of their burden and the fetters that they used to wear. Then those who believe in him, and honor him, and help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him: they will be the ones to prosper.” (Al-Araf 7:157)

In spite of the distortions and deletions made by some Jewish rabbis and Christian priests to their sacred texts, and in spite of the incorrect interpretations they imposed on them, there still remains within those texts enough to establish the proof of Muhammad (PBUH) being a prophet of God.

Another proof that Muhammad (PBUH) was a prophet of God is the history of his mission, the events of his life, the success of his followers, and how swiftly Islam spread throughout the nations of the world.

The attributes of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his mode of conduct show us that he was truly a prophet of God. He was, in every aspect of his character, an exemplary human being and history has never witnessed anyone else like him.

One of his most pronounced character traits was his capacity for mercy. He had great love and compassion for the poor and preferred to sit and partake of meals in their company. He showed great empathy for the sick and would go out of his way to help them. He would not leave a sick person or a child in need without fulfilling that need. He showed mercy to the orphans and encouraged people to care for them. He had great affection for children and would often carry babies and make them laugh. He taught his followers that children had the right to play and to be humored.

His mercy extended even to animals. He commanded his followers to be kind to the animals in their care and prohibited abusing them. He instructed that animals used for food should be slaughtered carefully and with compassion. He reprimanded a man for overburdening his camel and failing to give it sufficient nourishment. He also informed us that a woman once was consigned to Hell for her mistreatment of a cat. She had locked it up and denied it food until it starved to death. Conversely, a prostitute received God’s forgiveness and entered heaven because she showed pity on a thirsty dog and gave it water. Once he was asked if people were rewarded for the good treatment they gave to animals. The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: “For every creature possessing a liver there is a reward.”

Added to his mercy was his courage. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was among the most courageous of people. He was always present in the battlefield during war, and when things became severe, he would be seen fighting in the front lines. He would remain firm even when other brave men would turn to flee.

He never hesitated in the face of falsehood and never ceased to call to the truth, even when most of the people of the Earth were opposed to him. He never wavered on any of his principles but continued to enjoin what was right and forbid what was wrong.

He was also very forgiving to those who wronged him. He never became angry or hateful on a personal level. No matter how greatly someone wronged him when he was weak, he would show that person clemency when he was in a position of power. He would accept excuses even when he knew that the one making the excuse was lying.

He was the most generous of people. He gave in charity like a person who had no fear of poverty. He never once refused to give to someone who asked. He gave everything that came into his possession to the poor and the needy. He would prefer his guests to himself and the members of his household. He usually sufficed himself and his family with dates and water and months would sometimes go by without a cooking fire being lit in his house.

He was at the same time a most exemplary husband. He was very affectionate and caring. He was quick to overlooked mistakes. He never once hit one of his wives, nor did he ever raise his voice to them or ridicule them. He always showed kindness. He would indulge them in anything that was not sinful. He shared in the housework and took care of himself. He mended his own clothes and shoes.

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was kind to his servants. He commanded his followers not to overwork their servants and commanded that they must eat the same food that the members of the household eat and wear clothing of the same quality. Anas b. Mâlik said: “I worked as a servant for the Prophet (peace be upon him) in his residence and on his journeys. No matter what I did, he never once said to me: “Now why did you do that?” Likewise, no matter what I might have failed to do, he never once said to me: “Now why didn’t you do that?”

Once the Prophet (pbuh) saw a man beating his slave. The Prophet (PBUH) said to him: “God is more capable of punishing you than you are of punishing him.” Upon hearing this, the man stopped and said: “I set him free for the sake of God.” The Prophet (PBUH) then said: “If you did not free him, you would have been touched by the fire.”

The Prophet (pbuh) was extremely shy and modest. He hated foul speech He never once uttered a foul word. He said: “A strong sense of shame is a good quality in every way.” He also said: “Nothing but good comes from having a strong sense of shame.”

He was also very humble. He taught his followers: “None will enter Paradise who has within his heart an atom’s weight of pride.”He used to sit on the floor and eat. He forbade his companions from standing in honor when he entered the room. When he walked, he never expected anyone to move out of the way. He never allowed himself to stand out in his dress or his steed. He never seated himself in a place of honor when he was in the company of others.

Above all of these qualities was his devotion to God. He immersed himself in worship and eschewed the pleasures of the world. The remembrance and praise of God was always on his lips. He always sought the forgiveness of his Lord. His reverence of God often brought him to tears. He fasted so much that it sometimes seemed that he never went a day without fasting. He spent long stretches of the night standing in prayer until his ankles would swell. When he was asked why he worshipped so much when God had forgiven him all of his past and future sins, he replied: “Should I not then be a grateful servant?”

These are just a few of his noble qualities. The combination of worldly and spiritual perfection that he exhibited was a miracle in and of itself and a testimony to his truly being a prophet of God.

Among other proofs are:

1.    Muhammad (PBUH) was raised illiterate, unable to read or write, and remained like that till his death. Among all his people, he was known as being truthful and trustworthy. Before receiving revelation, he had no prior knowledge of Religion or any previously sent Message. He remained like that for his first forty years. Revelation then came to Muhammad (PBUH) with the Quran that we now have between our hands. This Quran mentioned most of the accounts found in the previous scriptures, telling us about these events in the greatest detail as if he witnessed them. These accounts came precisely as they were found in the Torah sent down to Moses and in the Gospel sent down to Jesus. Neither the Jews nor Christians were able to belie him regarding anything that he said.

2.    Muhammad (PBUH) also foretold of everything that would occur to him and his community after him, pertaining to victory, the removal of the tyrannical kingdoms of Chosroes [the royal title for the Zoroastrian kings of Persia] and Caesar, and the establishment of the religion of Islam throughout the earth. These events occurred exactly as Muhammad foretold, as if he was reading the future from an open book.

3.    Muhammad (pbuh) also brought an Arabic Quran that is the peak of eloquence and clarity. The Quran challenged those eloquent and fluent Arabs of his time, who initially belied him, to bring forth a single chapter like the Quran. The eloquent Arabs of his day were unable to contest this Quran.

Indeed, till our day, none has ever dared to claim that he has been able to compose words that equal-or even approach-the order, grace, beauty, and splendor of this Glorious Quran.

4.   The life history of this Noble Prophet (pbuh) was a perfect example of being upright, merciful, compassionate, truthful, brave, generous, distant from all evil character, and ascetic in all worldly matters, while striving solely for the reward of the Hereafter. Moreover, in all his actions and dealings, he was ever mindful and fearful of Allah.

5.   Allah instilled great love for Muhammad (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) in the hearts of all who believed in and met him. This love reached such a degree that any of his companions would willingly sacrifice his (or her) self, mother or father for him.

Till today, those who believe in Muhammad honor and love him. Anyone of those who believe in him would ransom his own family and wealth to see him, even if but once.

6.   All of history has not preserved the biography of any person in the manner it has preserved the life of Muhammad (PBUH), who is the most influential human in history.

Nor has the entire earth known of anyone whom every morning and evening, and many times thereafter throughout the day, is thought of by those who believe in him. Upon remembering Muhammad (PBUH), the believers in him will greet him and ask Allah to bless him. They do such with full hearts and true love for him.

7.    Nor has there every been a man on earth whom is still followed in all his doings by those who believe in him.

Those who believe in Muhammad (PBUH), sleep in the manner he slept; purify themselves (through ablution and ritual washing) in the manner he purified himself; and adhere to his practice in the way they eat, drink, and clothe themselves.

Indeed in all aspects of their lives, the believers in Muhammad (PBUH) adhere to the teachings he spread among them and the path that he traveled upon during his life.

During every generation, from his day till our time, the believers in this Noble Prophet have fully adhered to his teachings. With some, this has reached the degree that they desire to follow and adhere to the Prophet's way in his personal matters regarding which Allah has not sought of them to adhere to in worship. For example, some will only eat those specific foods or only wear those specific garments that the Messenger liked.

Let alone all that, all those who believe in Muhammad (PBUH) repeat those praises of Allah, special prayers, and invocations that he would say during each of his actions during day and night, like: what he would say when he greeted people, upon entering and leaving the house, entering and leaving the mosque, entering and leaving the bathroom, going to sleep and awaking from sleep, observing the new crescent, observing the new fruit on trees, eating, drinking, dressing, riding, traveling and returning from travel, etc.

Let alone all that, all those who believe in Muhammad (PBUH) fully perform-even to the minute detail-every act of worship-like prayer, fasting, charity, and pilgrimage-as this Noble Messenger (PBUH) taught and as he himself performed.

All of this allows those who believe in him, to live their lives in all aspects with this Noble Messenger as their example, as if he was standing before them, for them to follow in all their doings.

8.    There has never been nor will there ever be a man anywhere upon this earth who has received such love, respect, honor, and obedience in all matters-small and large alike-as has this Noble Prophet.

9.    Since this day, in every region of the earth and during every period, this Noble Prophet has been followed by individuals from all races, colors and peoples. Many of those who followed him were previously Christians, Jews, pagans, idolaters, or without any religion. Among those who chose to follow him, were those who were known for their sound judgment, wisdom, reflection, and foresight. They chose to follow this Noble Prophet after they witnessed the signs of his truthfulness and the evidences of his miracles. They did not choose to follow Muhammad out of compulsion or coercion or because they had adopted the ways of their fathers and mothers.

Indeed many of the followers of this Prophet (PBUH), chose to follow him during the time when Islam was weak, when there were few Muslims, and when there was severe persecution of his followers on earth. Most people who have followed this Prophet (PBUH) have done so not to acquire some material benefits. Indeed many of his followers have suffered the greatest forms of harm and persecution as a result of following this Prophet. Despite all this harm and persecution, this did not turn them back from his religion.

My brethren! All of this clearly indicates to anyone possessing any sense, that this Prophet was truly and really Allah's messenger and that he was not just a man who claimed prophethood or spoke about Allah without knowledge.

10. With all this, Muhammad (PBUH) came with a great religion in its creedal and legal make-up.

Muhammad (PBUH) described Allah with qualities of complete perfection, and at the same time in a manner that is free of ascribing to Him any imperfection. Neither the philosophers or the wise could ever describe Allah like such. Indeed it is impossible to imagine that any human mind could conceive of an existing being that possesses such complete ability, knowledge, and greatness; Who has subdued the creation; Who has encompassed everything in the universe, small or large; and Who possesses such perfect mercy.

Nor is it in the ability of any human being to place a perfect law based upon justice, equality, mercy and objectivity for all human activity on earth like the laws that Muhammad brought for all spheres of human activity - like buying and selling, marriage and divorce, renting, testimony, custody, and all other contracts that are necessary to uphold life and civilization on earth.

11. It is impossible that any person conceive wisdom,, morals, good manners, nobleness of characters as what this honorable Prophet (PBUH) brought.

In a full and complete manner, Muhammad (PBUH) spread a teaching regarding character and manners toward one' parents, relatives, friends, family, humanity, animals, plants and inanimate objects. It is impossible for the human mind alone to grasp all of that teaching or come with a similar teaching.

All of that unequivocally indicates that this Messenger did not bring any new religion from his own accord, but that it was rather a teaching and inspiration that he received from the One Who created the earth and the high heavens above and created this universe in its miraculous architecture and perfection.

12. The legal and creedal make-up of the religion that the Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH) brought resembles the engineering of the heavens and the earth. All of that indicates that He who created the heavens and the earth is the One Who sent down this great law and upright religion.

The degree of inimitability of the Divine law that was sent down upon Muhammad is to the same degree of inimitability of the Divine creation of the heavens and earth. For just as humanity cannot create this universe, in the same manner humanity cannot bring forth a law like Allah's law that He sent down upon His servant and messenger Muhammad (PBUH).



Question: By  Ahmad Souza

I am a Catholic desiring to learn more about the Islamic religion. As a Christian, I do not believe that the Quran is from God, but I do respect your belief in it. I have two theories though, that I respectfully ask you to answer for me:

1) That Muhammad truly did not receive revelations. He believed that he did but it was some kind of mental disorder set off by a traumatic event in his life. Even though he did not show any signs earlier, there is evidence to show that this is scientifically possible.

2) Muhammad did receive revelations, but not from God. There are other spiritual powers, namely Satan and his minions, which try to ensnare souls. Often, their messages appear very good and harmless and even seem to be complying with God, but in reality they are traps for the faithful.

I do believe that Muhammad was a good man, and that he honestly believed that he was receiving revelations from God. But I do not believe that he really was. I mean no disrespect by saying this, as I greatly respect your religion, but I would like to know what makes you so certain that God revealed the Quran to him. 


Salaam Aimee. Thank you for your important question.

The fact that you are aware of Muhammad's (peace be upon him) convictions in the truth of his mission shows that you have researched the subject considerably. In other words, you do not consider intended fabrication on the part of the Prophet to be a possible explanation for the origins of the Quran.

Anyone who has read the words of the Quran along with some of the Traditions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) knows that he sincerely believed that he was a Prophet of God. Though you may dismiss him as mad or inspired by Satan, nevertheless he could not have been intentionally lying to those around him. He was a passionate believer in God; he was genuinely convinced that God would help him in his mission – this is an undeniable fact to those who have even a cursory knowledge of his life.

If we agree to rule out the possibility of his lying, then the next logical objection to his authenticity as a Prophet of God is that he was deluded. As you logically summarize, he was either mentally ill or beguiled by Satan. Let us look at these two possibilities in detail.

Was he mad?

Certain orientalists have proposed the suggestion that Muhammad (peace be upon him) was mad, and they cite certain fictitious Traditions that hint at his suffering from epilepsy in defense of their claims. The purported revelations, they explain, were nothing more than the ramblings of a delusional madman. In fact the Arab pagans around the Prophet also accused him of madness, as Allah mentions in Surah Al-Hijr, Chapter 15, verse 6:

“And they [the Arab pagans] say, ‘O you upon whom the message has been sent down, indeed you are mad”  (Al-Hijr 15:6)

If the product of this “madness” were anything other than the Glorious Quran, there might be some weight to the claim. But as it stands, the question must be asked: Could a madman produce a seemingly perfect text? In fourteen hundred years of intense scrutiny and examination, not a single contradiction, grammatical flaw, or comparable imitation has ever been found.

Could a madman inadvertently compose a text that stood as the foundation of the most successful and extensive empires ever to grace the earth? Could a madman write a book that has united peoples of hundreds of different languages and races for over fourteen centuries? A text that directly generated radically original systems of government, economics, human rights, and scholarship that stood the test of time and have subsequently inspired the rules and governing systems by which we live today?

To call the Quran the product of insanity is no less implausible than a group of monkeys jumping on a keyboard and producing an unflawed copy of Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. Furthermore, the Quran itself challenges such accusations through its self-declared inimitability (i’jaz). Allah says in Surah Al-Baqarah, chapter 2 verses 23 thru 24:

*{And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call on your witnesses besides Allah if you are truthful (23) But if you do it not – and you can never do it – then be on your guard against the fire of which men and stones are the fuel; it is prepared for the unbelievers.}*  (Al-Baqarah 2:23-24)

Furthermore, if we believe in the existence of an all-powerful and controlling God, then we have to acknowledge that He would be in control the mind of a “madman” in the middle of the Arabian desert. As a believer in God, you have to admit that He willed and allowed for Muhammad to speak every verse of the Quran, and thereupon God allowed for these verses to travel around the world and win the hearts of billions of Muslims. If you are going on the assumption that the Quran is “misguidance,” then God’s willing its existence coupled with its colossal influence on mankind makes the Satanic-ploy theory more likely than its being a random creation of the mind of a madman.

An English speaker must bear in mid that the miracle of the Quran is in the Arabic original. In fact, the Quran only exists in Arabic; English versions are in reality translations of the meanings of the Quran. Additionally, it would be appropriate at this point to mention the innumerable scientific miracles scattered throughout the Quran. As this issue has been dealt with extensively in previous answers on our site, please refer to the following link for a detailed and astounding presentation: Miracles of the Quran.

Was it Satan?

The second logical objective to the Quran’s divine origins is the possibility that it is the work of Satan. Christians have traditionally argued that the Quran was intended by Satan to be a means of leading astray the masses from God’s imminence, personified in Jesus (peace be upon him). The Christians have (incorrectly) held the Islamic concept of God to be wholly transcendent, i.e. the Muslim God is seen by them as completely impersonal, as He lacks a human facet like that which Jesus represents to the Christian tradition.

Allah says in Surah Qaff, Chapter 50, verse 16:

“We verily created man and We know what his soul whispers to him, and We are nearer to him than his jugular vein” (Qaaf 50:16)  

If we examine the Satanic-ploy argument objectively, it proves to be extremely feeble. The Quran calls only to deeds that are good. Among many other things, it incites its reader to belief in God, trust and reliance on Him, prayer, God-consciousness at all times, sincerity of intention, charity, kindness to orphans and the needy, graciousness to our parents, justice and fairness among people, truthfulness and good business ethics, chastity, cleanliness, etc.

One may object: Well and good, but it’s all for naught if it calls even to a single evil. It may seem rational for Satan to tell us, “Pray, give charity, eat pure food, and kill your parents.” However, the Quran doesn’t slip once; every deed that it calls to can unanimously be considered virtuous by people of all faiths – we urge you to search for yourself. Then, why would Satan call to belief in God and virtuous deeds?

Additionally, Allah says in Surah An-Nahl, chapter16, verse 98:

*{So when you recite the Quran, seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Satan.}*

If we agree on the existence of God, don’t we think that no matter what religion we follow, He will respond to our seeking refuge in Him from Satan? In other words, why would Satan tell us to seek refuge in God from him? Even if we had the wrong religion, wouldn’t this weaken his power over us? The verse can only harm him; it serves no benefit to him – why would he include it?

Next, let’s look at the state of the world in which Muhammad (peace be upon) lived. The Arab pagans to whom he originally preached were as far from God as is imaginable. They worshipped stone idols, buried their daughters alive, murdered over a camel’s drinking out of the wrong well, were ruled by the most absurd superstitions, etc. Satan had fully deceived them already. Why would he start a new religion that clearly brought them closer to God and closer to virtuosity? A Christian cannot deny that the pre-Islamic pagans were infinitely farther from the Christian teachings and ideals than their later-day Muslim counterparts.

One may say: But Satan brought the Arabs slightly closer to God in order to later mislead the rest of the world – it was a sacrifice on the part of Satan for the sake of the greater evil. Then let’s look at the state of the people who accepted Islam after the Arabs. The Persians, though custodians of a hitherto great civilization, by and large practiced fire-worship; their religious beliefs, rituals, and views on the sanctity of life were no more than a shade better than the desert idol-worshippers. The Indians were seeped in countless forms of idol worship, animism, ancestor worship, and religiously-legitimized socioeconomic bigotry. The advent of Islam would later lead to a unification, simplification, and reform of the native beliefs of India that now comes under the over-simplified title of Hinduism. North Africa, though containing many Christian enclaves and strongholds many of which would incidentally retain their Christian beliefs after the Islamic conquests, was de-facto ruled by polytheist tribes of Berber and African ethnicity. The later-day Turks and Mongols also worshipped idols and dead ancestors prior to their adoption of Islam.

From a Christian perspective, there is no doubt that Islam brought the native populations of the aforementioned areas closer to the Christian ideal than their previous religions. Why wouldn’t Satan leave “sleeping dogs lie” and let the people continue on in their religions that epitomized the nadir of misguidance? From strictly a numbers perspective, Satan would have clearly mislead more people and would have caused more people to die in the farthest state from the Christian ideal had he not “inspired” the Quran, as the Christians hold.

If there are holes in these arguments, please let us know. We respect your question because it is polite yet frank, and more importantly it reflects a logical and sincere quest for the Truth. If you are not Muslim, we expect you to have misgivings about the Quran. We are not insulted by your objectives and we hope that more non-Muslims would voice their doubts for the sake of arriving at Truth.

On a personal note, I am a convert Muslim from America who accepted Islam in my youth. Within the past two years, I have taken up the part-time study of Arabic with an experienced teacher, and by Allah’s Will, I have begun to grasp the meanings of the Quran in its original language.

I can say from experience that my study has vastly improved my appreciation and understanding of the Quran, and I would urge anybody who sincerely seeks to prove its authenticity to him or herself to take up the study of Arabic. For me, the difference between the original language and the translated meanings is like day and night.

Thank you again for your question, and please stay in touch.

Excerpted, with some modifications, from:



Question :

Did prophet Muhammad (pbuh) directly see Allah almighty, on the day he saw Heaven, Hell, etc? If so, please send me evidence of this from the Quran Hadith.

Answer :  Praise be to Allah.  

Most of the Sahaabah were of the view that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not see Allah with his eyes on the night of the Miraaj. 

It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “Whoever told you that Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saw his Lord was lying. He said that no vision can grasp him  [cf. al-An’aam 6:103]…”   (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, al-Tawheed, 6832). 

It was narrated that Abu Dharr said: “I asked the Messenger of Allah  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), ‘Did you see your Lord?’ He said, ‘ He is veiled by Light, how could I see Him.’” (Narrated by Muslim, al-Eeman, 261). 

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “The (Prophet's) heart lied not (in seeing) what he (Muhammad SAW) saw (11) Will you then dispute with him (Muhammad SAW) about what he saw [during Ascent of the Prophet SAW over the seven heavens)”  (An-Najm 53:11-12)

(This means that) he saw Him twice with his heart.” (Narrated by Muslim, al-Eemaan, 258).   

Ibn al-Qayyim said: “UthmaanibnSa’eed al-Daarimi said in his book al-Ru’yah that there was consensus among the Sahaabah that he [the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah  be upon him)] did not see his Lord on the night of the Mi’raaj. Some of them excluded Ibn ‘Abbaas and said that he was not one of those who said that. Our Shaykh says that this does not go against the facts, for Ibn ‘Abbaas did not say that he saw Him with the eyes in his head, and Ahmad relied upon this in one of the two reports narrated from him, where he says that he saw Him but he did not say that that was with the eyes in his head. The wording used by Ahmad is the same as that used by Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with them both). What indicates that what our Shaykh said about the meaning of the hadeeth of Abu Dharr is correct is the fact that in another hadeeth he said that His veil is Light.  And Allah knows best what the Light is that is mentioned in the hadeeth of Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased with him) where it says, ‘I saw Light.’” 

Ijtimaa’ al-Juyoosh al-Islamiyyah, vol. 1, p. 12 

Shaykh al-Islam (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “Chapter: with regard to seeing Allah, what was proven in al-Saheeh from Ibn ‘Abbaas is that he said: ‘Muhammad saw his Lord with his heart twice, and ‘Aa’ishah denied that he had seen Him. Some people reconciled these two reports by saying that ‘Aa’ishah denied that he saw Him with his eyes and Ibn ‘Abbaas affirmed that he saw Him with his heart. Some versions of the report narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas refers to seeing without specifying how, and others indicate that it was with the heart. Sometimes he says that Muhammad saw his Lord, and sometimes he says that Muhammad saw Him.

There is no clear statement from Ibn ‘Abbaas which says that he saw Him with his eyes. Similarly Imaam Ahmad sometimes says that he saw Him and sometimes says that he saw Him with his heart. No one whom Ahmad heard said that he saw Him with his eyes. But some of his companions heard some of the words that did not specify how, and understood from that that he had seen Him with his eyes, just as some people heard the words of Ibn ‘Abbaas that did not specify how, and understood from that that he had seen Him with his eyes. But there is nothing in the evidence to prove that he saw Him with his eyes, and that was not narrated from any of the Sahaabah. There is nothing in the Quran or Sunnah to indicate that, rather the saheeh texts which indicate that he did not see Him are more definitive. In Saheeh Muslim it is narrated that Abu Dharr said: ‘I asked the Messenger of Allah  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), “Did you see your Lord?” He said, “He is veiled with Light, how could I see Him?”’ 

And Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

‘Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allah) [above all that (evil) they associate with Him] Who took His slave (Muhammad) for a journey by night from Al-Masjid Al-Haraam (at Makkah) to Al-Masjid Al-Aqsaa (in Jerusalem), the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him (Muhammad) of Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.)’ (Al-Isra’ 17:1) 

If he had seen Him with his own eyes, that He would have mentioned that. The same applies to the words “Will you then dispute with him (Muhammad) about what he saw [during the Mi’raaj]?” (An-Najm 53:12). If he had seen Him with his own eyes, that would have been mentioned. 

It is proven from the saheeh texts and from the consensus of the salaf (first generations) of this ummah that no one can see Allah with his eyes in this world, with the exception of the claim made by some that our Prophet Muhammad alone saw Him. But they are agreed that the believers will see Allah on the Day of Resurrection with their own eyes just as they see the sun and the moon (in this world).” 

And Allah  knows best. 

Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, vol. 6, p. 509-510

Excerpted, with some modifications, from:




Question: Is the Prophet (PBUH) or any other being apart from Allah Omnipresent? Can we ask his help in our needs?

Answer: Praise be to Allah. 

Saying that Prophet (PBUH) or any other is Omnipresent is totally baseless and trying to make prophet raised to the status of Allah as Chirstians have done to Jesus (PBUH).


Allah said to His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him):

“Verily, you (O Muhammad) will die, and verily, they (too) will die” (Az-Zumar 39:30)  

And Allah said (interpretation of the meaning): 

“Muhammad is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)?....” (Aale ‘Imraan 3:144)

“And We granted not to any human being immortality before you (O Muhammad); then if you die, would they live forever? (Al-Anbiyaa’ 21:34)  

Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) said, in his speech after the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had died, “Whoever used to worship Muhammad, Muhammad has died, but whoever used to worship Allah, Allah is Alive and will never die.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari).

This and similar evidence indicates that Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was a human being like all other human beings, who died as they die, and will never be immortal just as no one before him was immortal.

Whoever wants to put the Prophet beyond the human realm and claim that the Prophet is present in all places, is the one who should be asked to produce evidence (daleel). How does he know that the Prophet is omnipresent at all times? Moreover, those who make the same claim with regard to Allah (should know that) this is kufr, deviation and misguidance. This belief implies that Allah is present even in dirty places like bathrooms etc. – Glorified be Allah far above what they say.


5. Allah may have not created this world

Question :

I have got a question regarding a hadiith. How sound is the hadiith, that states, that it were not for Muhammad (saw) Allah (swt) would not have created this world ? To be honest I am a bit suspicious about this hadith, could you shatter some light in the matter?

Answer: Praise be to Allah.  

Many false and fabricated ahaadeeth have been narrated that say similar things. For example: 

“Were it not for you, I would not have created the universe.” 

This was quoted by al-Shawkaani in al-Fawaa’id al-Majmoo’ahfi’l-Ahaadeeth al-Mawdoo’ah (p. 326). He said:  

Al-San’aani said: (it is) mawdoo’ (fabricated). 

Al-Albaani said in al-Silsilah al-Da’eefah (282): (it is) mawdoo’. 

Another example is the hadeeth narrated by al-Haakim according to which Ibn ‘Abbaas said: 

“Allah revealed to ‘Eesa (Jesus, peace be upon him): ‘O ‘Eesa, believe in Muhammad, and tell whoever you meet of your ummah to believe in him. For were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Adam, and were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Paradise and Hell. I created the Throne over the water and it would not settle until I wrote on it, Laailaaha ill-Allah Muhammad Rasool Allah (There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah).” 

Al-Haakim said: its isnaad is saheeh! But al-Dhahabi commented on that and said: I believe it is fabricated and falsely attributed to Sa’eed. 

Meaning, Sa’eedibn Abu ‘Aroobah (one of the narrators of this hadeeth). This hadeeth was narrated from him by ‘AmribnAws al-Ansaari, who is the one who is accused of fabricating it. Al-Dhahabi mentioned him in al-Meezaan where he said: “He produced a munkar report,” then he quoted this hadeeth, and said, “I believe that it is mawdoo’ (fabricated).” Al-HaafizIbnHajar agreed with him, as it says in al-Lisaan. 

Al-Albaani said in al-Silsilah al-Da’eefah (280): There is no basis for it. 

Shaykh al-Islam IbnTaymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked: 

Is the hadeeth which some people quote – Were it not for you, Allah would not have created the Throne or the Kursiy or the earth or the heavens or the sun or the moon or anything else” saheeh or nor? 

He replied:

Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is the leader of the sons of Adam, and the best and noblest of creation, hence some people say that Allah created the universe because of him, or that were it not for him, Allah would not have created the Throne or the Kursiy or the earth or the heavens or the sun or the moon. 

But this hadeeth that is narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is neither saheeh (sound) nor da’eef (weak), and it was not narrated by any scholar in a hadeeth from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Neither was it known from the Sahaabah. Rather it is the words of one who is unknown. 

Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 11/86-96. 

The Standing Committee was asked: 

Can it be said that Allah created the heavens and the earth for the purpose of creating the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)? What is the meaning of the hadeeth, “Were it not for you the universe would not have been created,” and does this hadeeth have any basis? 

They replied: 

The heavens and the earth were not created for the sake of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), rather they were created for the purpose which Allah mentions (interpretation of the meaning): 

“It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge” (At-Talaaq 65:12) 

As for the hadeeth mentioned, it is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and has no sound basis. 

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/312 

ShaykhIbnBaaz was asked about this hadeeth and said: 

The answer is that this was transmitted from the words of some of the common people who have no understanding.

Some people say that the world was created for the sake of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and were it not for Muhammad the world would not have been created and mankind would not have been created. This is false and has no basis, and these are corrupt words. Allah created the world so that He would be known and worshipped. He created the world and He created mankind so that His names and attributes, His power and knowledge, would be known and so that He alone would be worshipped with no partner or associate, and so that He would be obeyed – not for the sake of Muhammad or for the sake of Nooh or Moosa or ‘Eesa or any other Prophet. Rather Allah created the universe so that He alone would be worshipped, with no partner or associate.





I was once told that Rasulullah (saw) has said that visiting his grave after his death is the same as visiting him when he was alive and that, therefore, when we visit his grave in Madinah, there is no harm in speaking to him as if he were alive and requesting him to intercede on our behalf with Allah. But I am worried that this might be 'shirk'.


Al-Daaraqutni reported in his Sunan (2/278) with an isnaad from Haatib that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever visits me after I die, it is as if he visited me when I was still alive…” 

This is a hadeeth which many of the scholars of hadeeth judged to be false and not to have been reported with a saheehisnaad from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Among the scholars who voiced this opinion was al-Haafiz al-Dhahabi in Lisaan al-Meezaan (4/285),

in his biography of one of the narrators, Haaroon ibn Abi Qaz’ah. Al-Dhahabi said: “…Haaroon ibn Abi Qaz’ah al-Madani [reported] from a man”. Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said in Lisaan al-Meezaan (6/217): “Al-Azdi said: ‘Haaroon Abu Qaz’ah reports mursal ahaadeeth from a man of Aal Haatib.’ I [Ibn Hajar] say: from this we understand that what he is referring to is al-Azdi. Ya’qoob ibn Shaybah also classed him as da’eef (weak).”

Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar also mentioned him in al-Talkhees al-Habeer, in his comment on the ahaadeeth of al-Raafa’i al-Kabeer (2/266). He said, “In his isnaad is the unknown [majhool] man” – meaning a man from AalHaatib.

Shaykh al-Islam IbnTaymiyyah said in al-Tawassulwa’l-Waseelah (p. 134) about this hadeeth: “It is obviously a lie that goes against Islam. Anyone who visited him during his lifetime and believed in him, was one of his companions, especially if he was among those who migrated to join him or fought alongside him. It is proven that he  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: ‘Do not slander my Companions, for by the One in Whose hand is my soul, if any one of you were to spend gold equal to the size of Uhud, it would not equal the deeds of one of them, not even half of it.’ [Reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim].

Anyone who comes after the Sahaabah cannot be like the Sahaabah by doing obligatory duties such as Hajj, jihaad, the five daily prayers and sending blessings upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), so how can he become equal to them by doing something that is not obligatory according to the consensus of the Muslims?

We are not even supposed to travel for this purpose, in fact it is forbidden to do so. However, traveling to the [Prophet’s] Mosque, and to al-Masjid al-Aqsaa [in Jerusalem], for the purpose of praying there, is mustahabb (encouraged), and traveling to the Ka’bah for Hajj is waajib (obligatory). If a person who undertakes a journey that is waajib or mustahabb still cannot be like one of the Sahaabah who traveled to visit the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) during his lifetime, how can they achieve this by undertaking a journey that is not allowed?”

He also said (p. 133): “All of the ahaadeeth about visiting his grave are da’eef, and are not to be relied upon in matters of religion. For this reason none of the authors of books of Saheeh and Sunan reported them at all; they were only narrated by those who reported da’eefahaadeeth, such as al-Daaraqutni, al-Bazzaar and others.

Shaykh al-Albaani said in al-Da’eefah (no. 1021) about this hadeeth: it is baatil (false). He mentioned what is wrong with the hadeeth, namely the man who is not named, and classed Haaroon Abu Qaz’ah as da’eef. There is a third fault with the hadeeth, which is that it causes confusion and contradiction. Then Shaykh al-Albaani said: “In general, the isnaad of this hadeeth is weak.”

He also said in al-Da’eefah (no. 47): “many people think that Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah and those who follow him among the Salafis forbid visiting the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) altogether. This is a lie and a fabrication, and it is not the only lie told about Ibn Taymiyah, may Allah have mercy on him, or about the Salafis. Everyone who reads the books of Ibn Taymiyah will see that he says it is permissible to visit his grave (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and that doing so is recommended (mustahabb), so long as it is not associated with any objectionable practices or innovations (bid’ah), such as traveling solely for that purpose, because of the hadeeth “No one should set out purposely except to visit three mosques.”

The hadeeth does not describe a ban only on traveling to visit other mosques, as many people think; it also includes a ban on setting out to visit any place which people think will bring them closer to Allah, whether it is a mosque, a grave or any other place.

This is indicated by the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurayrah who said: ‘I met Basrah ibn Abi Basrah al-Ghifaari and he asked me, ‘Where are you coming from?’ I said, ‘From al-Toor [Sinai].’ He said, ‘If I had met you before you left, you would not have gone there! I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say: ‘Do not travel except to three mosques.’” (Reported by Ahmad and others with a saheeh isnaad).

This clearly indicates that the Sahaabah understood the hadeeth to be general in application [i.e., it did not apply only to mosques]. This is supported by the fact that it is not reported that any of them ever set out with the intention of visiting a grave. They are the predecessors of Ibn Taymiyah in this regard, so whoever condemns Ibn Taymiyah is in effect condemning the salaf (the righteous predecessors), may Allah be pleased with them. May Allah have mercy on the one who said:

“All goodness is in following those who went before (the salaf) and all evil is in following the innovations of those who came later.”

In conclusion, traveling with the intention of visiting the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is bid’ah and is haraam, because of the hadeeth which forbids traveling to worship in any place except the three mosques.

As for visiting the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) when one happens to be in Madeenah, this is perfectly acceptable, as is traveling with the intention of praying in the Prophet’s Mosque as an act of worship and seeking to draw close to Allah. Those that are confused about this issue are those who do not understand the difference between what is permitted and what is forbidden. And Allah knows best.



Question :

I read this hadeeth and I would like to know whether it is saheeh or not. 

“When Adam committed his sin, he said, ‘O Lord, I ask You by virtue of Muhammad to forgive me.’ Allah said, ‘O Adam, how do you know of Muhammad when I have not yet created him?’ He said, ‘O Lord, when You created me with Your own hand, and breathed into me the soul that You created, I raised my head and saw written on the pillars of the Throne, Laa ilaaha ill-Allah Muhammad Rasool Allah [There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah]. Then I knew that You would not mention in conjunction with Your name any but the most beloved of Your creation to You.’ Allah said, ‘You have spoken the truth, O Adam. He is indeed the most beloved of My creation to Me. Pray to me by virtue of Him, for I have forgiven you. Were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created you.’”

Answer : Praise be to Allah.  

This hadeeth is mawdoo’ (fabricated). It was narrated by al-Haakim via ‘Abd-Allah ibn Muslim al-Fahri (who said), Ismaa’eel ibn Muslimah narrated to us, ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam told us, from his father, from his grandfather, from ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him), that he said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “When Adam committed his sin…” Then he quoted the hadeeth as the questioner quoted it. 

Al-Haakim said: The isnaad of this hadeeth is saheeh. 

This is what al-Haakim said! But a number of scholars rebuked him and denounced him for classing this hadeeth as saheeh. They ruled that this hadeeth is false and fabricated, and they pointed out that al-Haakim contradicted himself when commenting on this hadeeth. 

There follow some of their comments: 

Al-Dhahabi said, criticizing the words of al-Haakim quoted above: 

Rather it is mawdoo’ (fabricated), and ‘Abd al-Rahmaan is not reliable, and I do not know who ‘Abd-Allah ibn Muslim al-Fahri is. 

Al-Dhahabi also said in Meezaan al-I’tidaal: It is a false report. 

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar agreed with him in Lisaan al-Meezaan. 

Al-Bayhaqi said:  

‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam is the only one who narrated it with this isnaad, and he is da’eef (weak). IbnKatheer agreed with him in al-Bidaayahwa’l-Nihayyah, 2/323. 

Al-Albaani said in al-Silsilah al-Da’eefah, 25: (it is) mawdoo’. 

Al-Haakim himself (may Allah forgive him) accused ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Zayd of being a fabricator of hadeeth, so how could his hadeeth be saheeh? 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said in al-Qaa’idah al-Jaleelah fi’l-Tawassulwa’l-Waseelah (p. 69): 

Al-Haakim’s narration of this hadeeth is something for which he was denounced, and he himself said in his book al-Madkhilila Ma’rifat al-Saheeh ‘an al-Saqeem:

‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam narrated fabricated ahaadeeth from his father, and it is obvious to any competent hadeeth scholar that he is the one to blame for fabricating ahaadeeth. I say: ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam is da’eef (weak) because he made a lot of mistakes.

See Silsilat al-Ahaadeeth al-Da’eefah by al-Albaani, 1/38-47.

Excerpted, with some modifications, from:


8. buildings over graves

Question :          

I would like to ask questions concerning building over the graves. From the hadiths, it is clear that building any sort of structure over the graves or putting graves inside mosques is forbidden. There are many tombs of the saints in the Asian sub-continent and grave worship is the norm. However when telling these people of their haram actions they reply that our own Prophet Muhammad's grave is inside the mosque, and secondly that his grave has building over it, hence justifying the building over the graves.

Answer :             

As for the grave of Prophet, there was no building over it. It happens that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) passed away in the room of `A’ishah and there is an exception for prophets and messengers of Allah. They have to be buried in the same place they pass away; they can't be removed to other place. Since Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) passed away in the room of `A’ishah, therefore, he was buried inside that room. This is considered as a special treatment for all the messengers of Allah. 

As for the graves of Abu Bakar and `Umar, this should be considered as Ijtihad from both of them and certainly they did request as a reflection and deep expression of their passion and great love to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). Both of them were buried next to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). However, the action of Abu Bakar and `Umar should not be taken as a precedent. The prohibition of building on graves remains as clearly stated by the holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

As for having all these great graves inside the mosque, I shall stress that they were not inside the mosque and they supposed not to be inside. They were entered into the mosque as a result of fear and willingness to protect them against the evil attempts in the history to destroy them and remove the body of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

All in all, it is prohibited to build on graves thus it goes against the principles of humbleness that are required in handling the issues of the deceased.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:



Question :

Was the Prophet’s Israa’ and Mi`raj (Night Journey and Ascension) in soul only or in both body and soul?


According to the majority of jurists, scholars of Hadith and Muslim philosophers, the journey of Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi`raj was in both body and soul. Therein lay its being a miracle. There is much evidence of this point.

The eminent scholar Sheikh `AtiyyahSaqr, former head of Al-Azhar Fatwa Committee, states:

Scholars have differed as to whether the Prophet's journey of Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi`raj was in soul only or in both body and soul.

The majority of jurists, scholars of Hadith, and Muslim philosophers agreed that it was in both body and soul for many reasons.

First, according to Almighty Allah's words: 

“Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant (Muhammad) for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who hears and sees (all things).” (Al-Isra 17:1) 

He Almighty has referred to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) as “His servant.” The word “servant” does not refer to one's soul only; it refers to the servant as a whole, body and soul.

This is similar to the word “slave” in Allah's words: “Have you seen the one who forbids” (9) "A sevant when he prays" (Al-`Alaq 96:9-10)

and And when the slave of Allah stood up in prayer to Him, they crowded on him, almost stifling” (Al-Jinn 72:19) The word “slave” in both these verses refers to the person in question as a whole, body and soul.

Second, had the Prophet's journey of Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi`raj been in soul only, it would not have been regarded as a miracle. It would have been then an ordinary dream. While sleeping, many people visit remote places and see extraordinary things without moving an inch from the places they are already in, and there is nothing extraordinary about that to other people.

Had the Prophet's journey of Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi`raj been a dream, Allah Almighty would not have mentioned it in the Quran in terms that express its being a miracle and extraordinary incident.

Third, Allah Almighty says about the journey of Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi`raj: “….We appointed the vision which We showed thee as an ordeal for mankind….”  (Al-Israa’ 17:60). “Ordeal” here refers to its being a trial. Contemplating this, the journey would not be a trial unless it was in both body and soul. Had it been in soul only, there would not have been a trial or something extraordinary regarding it.

Besides, when the unbelievers knew about the journey of Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi`raj, they wondered how the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) could make it on one night, when they would make a similar journey in a month. (Why should they disbelieve it, if it were a mere dream?)

Fourth, it was Allah Almighty Who made His Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) have that journey, and, certainly, nothing is impossible for Allah Almighty to do; He Almighty is able to do all things. Hence, there is nothing that calls us to doubt the occurrence of the journey in both body and soul.

Those who say that the journey was in soul only cite as evidence for their view the Quranic verse: “….We appointed the vision which We showed thee as an ordeal for mankind….”  (Al-Israa’ 17:60).

They believe that the vision (ru’ya) here refers to a dream, not to an actual seeing.

But this opinion is not wholly tenable, for ru’ya, lexically speaking, refers also to seeing with the eyes. Besides, according to Al-Bukhari, Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, commenting on the verse in question, “The sights which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was shown on the Night Journey when he was taken to Jerusalem were actual sights, (not dreams).”

Those who are of the opinion that the journey was in soul only also cite as evidence for their view the Mother of the Believers `A’ishah's hadith: "The Prophet's sanctified body was not missing on the Night Journey.'

But this point is also refuted for the following reasons.

1.            The hadith reported to have been said by `A’ishah is not an authentic one; there are missing and unknown reporters in its chain of narration.

2.            `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) was not yet married to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) at the time of the journey. She might even not have been born then, if we take into account the controversy regarding the date of Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi`raj.

3.            Her saying: "The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did not see his Almighty Allah with his eye" indicates that she believed that the journey was in both body and soul. Had she thought that it was in soul only, she would not have said that.

4.            Since the hadith ''The Prophet's sanctified body was not missing'' is not authentic, there is no need to attempt to explain it to mean that the journey was in both body and soul, for some say that the hadith indicates that his soul was not separated from his body.

Anyway, what we are required to believe with regard to Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi`raj is that it did take place, as Allah Almighty tells us in the Glorious Quran.

As for its being in soul only or in both body and soul, this is a controversial point that needs not to be tackled strictly. One can adopt either view, but one is to bear in mind at the same time that Allah Almighty is able to do everything and that the Prophets' visions, according to scholarly agreement, are true.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:


10. Prophet's (PBUH) stools, urine and shadow


I have read in a book that the stools and urine of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) were not impure. How far is this true?


Some people tend to ascribe certain things which they consider as virtues to the Prophet, without having any sound basis for them. The point you have raised is one such thing. Recently, I answered a question on whether it is true that the Prophet had no shadow. I said then that it was a false notion and that it neither gave a distinction to the Prophet to have no shadow nor did it detract from his honor and position to have a shadow.

To say that Prophet's urine and stools were not impure is just an attempt to say that the Prophet was unlike other human beings or to ascribe to him an air of holiness which he was keen to dispel. Certainly, it is not true at all to suggest that what he discharged as a human being was any different from what is discharged by other people. He certainly washed his clothes from any impurity and he was keen to purify himself every time he went to the toilet. To suggest otherwise, is to deviate from the teachings of the Prophet.





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