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2)           Prayer: Number of Rakaa for Sunna


3)           Friday Prayer MISSING


4)           Khutbah in ArabiC AND TWO AZANS






7)           ONLY PRAYING JUMA



9)           Permissible excuses for missing DAILY CONGREGATION PRAYERS AND JUMMA prayer







13)        Prayer: Two Jamaa (CONGREGATION)

14)        VIDEOS



1.   Importance of Jumma Prayer


Question: What is the importance of Friday Prayers?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Friday is the best of days. It was on this day that Hadrat Aadam alayhis salaam was created, it was on this day that he was granted entry into jannah, it was on this day that he was removed from jannah (which became the cause for man’s existence in this universe, and which is a great blessing), and the day of resurrection will also take place on this day. (Sahih Muslim)

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “There is such an hour on Friday that if any Muslim makes dua in it, his dua will definitely be accepted. ” (Bukhari, Muslim)

The ulama have differed in specifying that hour which has been mentioned in the Hadith. Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlawi rahmatullahialayh has mentioned 40 different opinions in his book Sharh Sifrus Sa’aadah . However, from among all these opinions he has given preference to two opinions:

(1) That time is from the commencement of the khutbah till the end of the salaat,

(2) That time is towards the end of the day .

A big group of ulama have given preference to this second opinion and there are many Ahadith which support this opinion . Shaykh Dehlawi rahmatullahialayh says that this narration is correct that Hadrat Fatimah radiallahuanha used to order her maid on Fridays to inform her when the day is about to end so that she could occupy herself in making zikr and duas. (Ash’atulLama’aat)

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Of all the days, Friday is the most virtuous. It is on this day that the trumpet will be blown. Send abundant durood upon me on Fridays because they are presented to me on that day. ” The Sahabah radiallahu anhum asked: “O Rasulullah! How will they be presented to you when even your bones will not be present after your death?” Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) replied: “Allah Ta’ala has made the earth haraam upon the prophets forever . (Abu Daud)

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The word “shaahid” refers to Friday . There is no day more virtuous than Friday. There is such an hour in this day that no Muslim will make dua in it except that his dua will be accepted. And he does not seek protection from anything except that Allah Ta’ala will grant him protection” (Tirmidhi)

The word “shaahid” appears in Surah Burooj . Allah Ta’ala has taken an oath of that day. He says in the Quran:

“By the sky in which there are constellations .By the promised day (of judgement). By the day that witnesses (Friday), and the day that is witnessed (day of Arafah). ”

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Friday is the “mother” of all days and the most virtuous in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. In the sight of Allah Ta’ala it has more greatness than Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Ad’haa. ” (Ibn Majah)

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said“The Muslim who passes away on the night or during the day of Friday, Allah Ta’ala saves him from the punishment of the grave .” (Tirmidhi)

Once Hadrat Ibne Abbas radiallahu anhu recited the following verse: “…. This day, I have completed your Deen for you…. ” A Jew was sitting near him. On hearing this verse being recited he remarked: “If this verse was revealed to us, we would have celebrated that day as a day of eid . ” Ibne Abbas radiallahu anhu replied: “This verse was revealed on two eids, i. e . on the day of jumu’ah and the day of arafah. ” In other words, what is the need for us to make that day into a day of eid when it was already a day of two eids?

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to say that the night of jumu’ah is a lustrous night, and the day of jumu’ah is a lustrous day. (Mishkaat)

After qiyaamah, Allah Ta’ala will send those who deserve paradise into paradise, and those who deserve hell into hell. The days that we have in this world will also be there. Although there will be no day and night, Allah Ta’ala will show us the extent of days and nights and also the number of hours.

So when Friday will come and that hour when the people used to go for jumu’ah will approach, a person will call out saying: “O dwellers of jannah! Go into the jungles of abundance, the length and breadth of which are not known to anyone besides Allah Ta’ala. There will be mounds of musk which will be as high as the skies. The prophets alayhimus salaam will be made to sit on towers of light, and the believers on chairs of sapphires. Once everyone is seated in their respective places, Allah Ta’ala will send a breeze which will carry that musk. That breeze will carry the musk and apply it to their clothing, faces and hair . That breeze will know how to apply that musk even better than that woman who is given all the different perfumes of the world.

Allah Ta’ala will then order the carriers of His throne to go and place His throne among all these people. He will then address them saying: “O my servants who have brought faith in the unseen despite not seeing Me, who have attested My Rasul (Allah bless him & give him peace), and who have obeyed My laws! Ask Me whatever you wish for . This day is the day of giving abundantly. ”

They will all exclaim in one voice: “O Allah! We are pleased with You, You also be pleased with us. ”

Allah Ta’ala will reply: “O dwellers of jannah! If I were not pleased with you all, I would not have kept you in My jannah . Ask for something because this is the day of giving in abundance. ”

They will all say in one voice: “O Allah! Show us Your beauty, that we may be able to look at Your noble being with our very eyes. ”

Allah Ta’ala will lift the veil and will become apparent to these people and His beauty will engulf them from all sides. If this order was not given from before hand that the jannatis will never get burnt, without doubt they would not have endured the heat of this light and they would all have got burnt.

He will then ask them to go back to their respective places . Their beauty and attractiveness will double through the effects of that Real beauty. These people will then go to their wives. They will not be able to see their wives nor will their wives be able to see them. After a little while, the nur which was concealing them will be removed and they will now be able to see each other. Their wives will tell them that how is it that you do not have the same appearance which you had left with? That is, your appearance is a thousand times better now.

They will reply that the reason for this is that the noble being of Allah Ta’ala was made apparent to us and we saw His beauty with our very eyes . (Sharh Sifrus-Sa’aadah)

See what a great bounty they received on the day of jumu’ah.

Every afternoon, the heat of jahannam is increased. However, through the blessings of jumu’ah, this will not be done on Fridays . (Ihyaa ul-Uloom)

On one Friday, Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “O Muslims! Allah Ta’ala has made this day a day of eid . So have a bath on this day, whoever has perfume should apply it, and use the miswaak. ” (Ibn Majah)

The Aadaab of Jumu’ah

Every Muslim should make preparations for jumu’ah from Thursday. After the asr salaat of Thursday, he should make a lot of istighfaar. He should clean his clothes and keep them ready. If he does not have any perfume in his house, then if it is possible he should try and obtain some and keep it ready so that he will not get distracted with these things on jumu’ah. The pious people of the past have stated that the person to receive the most benefit on Friday will be that person who waits for it and who makes preparations for it from Thursday.

The most unfortunate person will be he who does not even know as to when Friday will fall, so much so that he will ask the people in the morning as to which day this is. Some pious people used to go and stay in the jaame musjid from the night of jumu’ah in order to make full preparations for the following day. (Ihya aul-Uloom, vol. 1, page 161)

On the day of jumu’ah, ghusl should be made and the hair of the head and the rest of the body should be thoroughly washed. It is also very virtuous to use the miswaak on this day.

After making ghusl, a person should wear the best clothing that he possesses, and if possible he should also apply some perfume. He should also clip his nails.

He should try and go very early to the jaame musjid. The earlier a person goes, the more reward he will receive. Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said“On the day of jumu’ah, the angels stand at the entrance of that musjid in which jumu’ah salaat is to be offered. They write down the name of the person who enters the musjid first, and thereafter the name of the person who follows, and they continue doing this . The person who entered first will receive the reward of sacrificing a camel in the path of Allah, the one who followed him will get the reward of sacrificing a cow, thereafter a chicken, thereafter the reward of giving an egg as charity in the path of Allah. Once the khutbah commences, the angels close the register and begin listening to the khutbah. ” (Bukhari and Muslim)

In olden times, the roads and alleys used to be extremely busy in the mornings and at Fajr time . All the people used to go so early to the Jaame Musjid and there used to be such a large crowd that it used to look like the days of eid .

Later, when this habit was given up, people began saying that this is the first innovation in Islam . After writing this, Imam Ghazali rahmatullahialayh says: “Aren’t the Muslims ashamed of themselves that the Jews and Christians go so early in the morning to their synagogues and churches on Saturdays and Sundays. Those who are businessmen go so early to the bazaars in order to do their buying and selling . Why don’t the Muslims do the same?”

The reality of the situation is that the Muslims have totally reduced the value of this blessed day. They do not even know what day this is, and what a high status it has. How sad it is that the day which was more valuable than Eid in the eyes of Muslims of the past, which Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) was proud of and the day which was not granted to the previous nations has become so dishonoured at the hands of Muslims today and it is such a great ingratitude to the favour of Allah Ta’ala that the consequence of all this can be seen with our very eyes. ”

“By going walking for the jumu’ah salaat, one gets the reward of fasting for one year for every step that he takes” (Tirmidhi)

On Fridays, Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to recite Surah Alif Laam Meem Sajdah and Surah Hal Ataa, in the Fajr salaat . These Surahs should therefore be occasionally recited in the Fajr salaat on Fridays . Occasionally they should be left out so that people do not regard their recitation as wajib.

For the jumu’ah salaat, Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to recite the following Surahs: al-Jumu’ah and al-Munaafiqun, or al-A’la and al-Ghaashiyah .

There is a lot of reward in reciting Surah Kahf either before the jumu’ah salaat or after it. Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The person who recites Surah Kahf on Fridays, a nur will appear for him from below the arsh as high as the skies. This light will help him in the darkness of the day of resurrection . And all the sins which he may have committed from the last Friday till this Friday will be forgiven . ” (Sharh Sifrus-Sa’aadah) .The ulama have written that this Hadith refers to minor sins because major sins are not forgiven without making taubah.

There is more reward in reciting durood on Fridays than on other days . It has been mentioned in the Hadith that durood should be recited abundantly on Fridays.

The Virtues and Importance of Jumu’ah Salaat

Jumu’ah salaat is fard-e-ayn . It has been established from the Quran, Hadith and the consensus of the ummah. It is one of the most salient features of Islam. The person who rejects jumu’ah salaat is a kaafir. The one who misses it without any valid excuse is a faasiq.

Allah Ta’ala says in the Quran:

“O you who believe! When the call for jumu’ah salaat is made, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala and leave all transactions. This is best for you if only you know” (Al-Jumma 62:9)

In this verse, “remembrance” refers to the jumu’ah salaat and khutbah. “Hasten” means that one should go with great concern and care.

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The person who has a bath on Friday, purifies himself as far as possible, applies oil to his hair, applies perfume, leaves for the musjid, when he arrives at the musjid he does not sit down by removing anyone from his place, offers as many nafl salaats as possible, when the imam delivers the khutbah he remains silent – then his sins from the previous jumu’ah till now will be forgiven.” (Bukhari)

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The person who has a bath on Friday and goes early to the musjid on foot, and not by a vehicle, listens to the khutbahand does not do any foolish act while it is being delivered, will get the reward of one year’s ibaadah, one year’s fasting, and one year’s salaat; for every step that he takes (Tirmidhi)

Hadrat Ibn Umar and Abu Hurayrah radiallahu anhuma narrate that they heard Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) saying: “People should abstain from leaving out jumu’ah salaat, If not, Allah Ta’ala will put a seal over their hearts whereby they will fall into severe negligence.”  (Muslim)

Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The person who misses out three jumu’ah’s without any valid reason, Allah Ta’ala puts a seal over his heart. (Tirmidhi). In another narration it is mentioned that Allah Ta’ala becomes displeased with him.

Taariq bin Shihaab radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The jumu’ah salaat with jama’at is a duty which is wajib on every Muslim with the exception of the following four persons: (i) a slave, that is the one who is owned by someone according to the rules laid down by the Shariah, (ii) a woman, (iii) an immature boy, (iv) a sick person” (Abu Daud)

Ibn Umar radiallahuanhu narrates that Rasulullah (Allah blesshim & give him peace) said the following in regard to those who leave out jumu’ah: “It is my earnest desire that I appoint someone as imam in my place while I go and burn the homes of those who do not attend the jumu’ah salaat.” (Muslim)

A similar Hadith has also been related with regard to leaving out jama’at. We have mentioned this Hadith previously.

Ibn Abbas radiallahuanhu narrates that Rasulullah (Allah blesshim & give him peace) said: “The person who leaves out jumu’ah salaat without a valid reason is written down as a hypocrite in a book that is absolutely protected from any changes and modifications (Mishkaat)

In other words, he will be labeled as a hypocrite forever. However, if he repents or Allah forgives him solely out of His mercy, then this is another matter.

Hadrat Jaabir radiallahuanhu narrates that Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Jumu’ah salaat becomes obligatory on the person who believes in Allah Ta’ala and the last day, except for the sick, musafir, woman, child, and a slave. If a person occupies himself in something unnecessary, or in some transaction, Allah Ta’ala also turns away from him and does not worry about him and Allah is worthy of all praise” (Mishkaat)

In other words, He is not affected by anyone’s ibaadah nor does He benefit in any way. His essence and being will remain the same irrespective of whether anyone praises Him and worships Him or not.

Hadrat Ibn Abbas radiallahuanhu says that the person who leaves out several jumu’ah salaats consecutively has in fact turned away from Islam. (Ash’atulLama’aat)

A person asked Ibn Abbas radiallahuanhu regarding a person who passed away and who should not join the jumu’ah and jama’at salaats: “What do you have to say regarding such a person?”

He replied: “That person is in jahannam . ”This person continued asking him this question for a full month and he gave him the same reply. (Ihyaa ul-Uloom)

Even by merely glancing at these Ahadith, one can come to the conclusion that the Shariah has laid great stress on jumu’ah salaat and that severe warnings have been given to the one who leaves out jumu’ah. Can a person who claims to be a Muslim still have the audacity of leaving out this fard duty?

Excerpted, with some modifications, from:


2. Prayer: Number of Rakaa for Sunna


How many raka's of sunnah are to be prayed before and after the farz of the juma prayers? Can these be prayed in 2's [2+2+...] ?


Before the obligatory Jumua prayer, there are two opinions: the Hanafi school of thought says 4 consecutive Rakaats (not 2, then salaam, then 2 more), while the Shafii school of thought says 2 Rakaats only. Both of these opinions are considered valid. As to the number of Rakaats after the Jumua prayer, it is only two according to both schools of thought. As to the issue of splitting the four rakaats into two sets (before and after the Jumua prayer), you don't have to do this because there are already two rakaats which are set for after the Jumua prayer, so there is no point to split them.


3. Friday Prayer MISSING


Friday prayer.... salaam...due to my job, sometimes I am unable to read the Friday Jumma prayer. Can you tell me how much sin is it, if somebody has lost three Jummas consequently. Also is any reason justified, due to work?

Answer :

Every Muslim male should be dedicated to performing Friday Jumu`ah Prayer at its appointed times because not performing the Friday Prayer without any valid excuse is a serious sin in Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said, “Whoever leaves three Jum`ah Prayers consecutively out of neglect on his part, Allah will put a seal on his heart.”

Responding to the question, Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, states the following:  
"The Prophet is referring to a person who deliberately absents himself from the Jumu`ah; it does not refer to situations when because of circumstances beyond his control he could not attend the Jumu`ah. For Allah does not burden anyone with what is beyond his or her ability to endure.  
The lesson we should learn from such hadiths is: We must never skip the Jumu`ah willfully out of apathy or neglect. How can we, when Jumu`ah is an obligation placed on us by Allah? It has tremendous spiritual and social benefits.  
So ask forgiveness of Allah if you have skipped the Jumu`ah deliberately in the past, and make a determination never to do so in the future. Allah is indeed Forgiving and Merciful."

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:


4. Khutbah in Arabic AND TWO AZANS


Is that necessary or not that Khateeb talk for 5 minutes in the language which is understood by local people?

Can only the AZAN for Kutba for Jumma be called or both AZANS must be called.


The fuqaha are unanimously agreed that it is better for the khutbah to be in Arabic, but they differed as to whether that is essential. There are three points of view:

1. That it is essential for it to be in Arabic for the one who is able to do that, even if the listeners do not know Arabic.

This is the view of the Maalikis and it is the well-known view of the Hanbalis.

See: al-Fawaakih al-Diwaani (1/306) and Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’ (2/34).

2- That it is essential for it to be in Arabic for the one who is able to do that, unless none of the listeners know Arabic, in which case he should give the khutbah in their language.

This is the correct view according to the Shaafa’is, and it is the view of some of the Hanbalis.

See: al-Majmoo’ by al-Nawawi (4/522).

3- It is mustahabb for the khutbah to be in Arabic but it is not essential, and the khateeb may deliver the khutbah in his own language instead of Arabic. This is the view of Abu Haneefah and some of the Shaafa’is.

See: Radd al-Muhtaar (1/543) and al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (19/180).

This third view is the correct one, and it is the view favoured by a number of our contemporary scholars, because there is no clear evidence to say that the khutbah must be in Arabic, and because the purpose of the khutbah is to exhort, benefit and teach, which can only be done by using the language of the people present.

There is no proof in the hadeeth to suggest that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stipulated that the Friday khutbah should be in Arabic, rather he delivered the khutbah in Arabic because it was his language and the language of his people. So the one who addressed them and guided them and reminded them spoke in their language that they understood. But he sent letters in Arabic to the kings and rulers of nations, and he knew that they spoke languages other than Arabic, and he knew that they would have them translated into their languages so that they would know what was in them.

Based on this, it is permissible for the khateeb to deliver the khutbah in a language where the people or the vast majority of its inhabitants do not know Arabic to deliver the khutbah in Arabic then translate it into the local language, so that they will understand what he is advising and reminding them of, and they will benefit from his khutbah.

He may also deliver the khutbah in the language of his country, even if it is not Arabic, and thus he will accomplish the guidance, teaching, exhortation and reminder that are the purpose of the khutbah.

But it is better to deliver the khutbah in Arabic and then translate it to the listeners, so as to combine the guidance of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in his khutbahs and his letters with achieving the aim of giving the khutbah, and so as to avoid an area concerning which there is scholarly dispute. End quote.

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (8/253).

Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Perhaps it is better, and Allah knows best, to discuss this matter in detail and say:

If the majority of people in the mosque are non-Arabic speakers who do not understand Arabic, then there is nothing wrong with giving the khutbah in a language other than Arabic, or delivering it in Arabic then translating it.

But if most of the people present know Arabic and understand it in general, then it is better to stick to Arabic and not go against the guidance of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), especially since the salaf used to deliver khutbahs in mosques where there were non-Arabs present, and it is not narrated that they used to translate it, because Islam was prevalent and so was Arabic.

As for the evidence that it is permissible in cases of necessity; there is some evidence to that effect in sharee’ah. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

 told us in Quran “Ò We sent not a Messenger except (to teach) in the language of their nation in order to make (things) clear to them....” (Ibraheem 14:4)

For example, when the Sahaabah invaded non-Arab lands such as Persia and Byzantium, they did not fight them until they called them to Islam via interpreters. End quote.

Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Baaz (12/372).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The correct view with regard to this matter is that it is permissible for the khateeb to deliver the khutbah in a language that the people present understand, if the people present are not Arabs and do not know Arabic. He may deliver the khutbah in their language, because that is the means of explaining to them, and the purpose of the khutbah is to explain the sacred limits of Allah to His slaves, and exhort them, and guide them. But the verses of Qur'aan should be recited in Arabic, then explained in the language of the people.

So after local language khutba, it is recommended that khutba should be given in Arabice also, as is practiced in most areas of the world. Arabic language has merits over other languages, because it is the language which will be used in Heaven and people are rewarded to learn it and or teach it. Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) said 'love the Arabs for three reasons; because I am an Arab, the Qur'an is in Arabic and it is the language of the Heaven'.

Yes, one Azan for the Khutbah of Jumaa is considered sufficient and the prayer and Khutbah are considered valid. However, doing two Azans (instead of one) is a Sunnah and is recommended.

And Allah knows best.




What is the legal minimum number of Muslims required to perform Friday Prayer? We heard that it should be at least 40 persons and we don't have such number of Muslims in the city where we live.

Answer :

The issue of the minimum number of people required to make Friday prayer valid is a matter of divergence among Muslim scholars. Some of them say it is yes, others say it is not. Both opinions are valid. If you live in a non-Muslim country where the Muslims are a minority, we still advise you to meet every Friday and perform the prayer in order to maintain this important. There is a disagreement among the Muslim scholars regarding this topic.

For the Shafii school, 40 people must be present. For the Maliki school, 12 people, while for the Hanafi school, three people must be present in addition to the Imam.

In his book “Fiqh-us-Sunnah”, the late Sheikh Sayyed Sabiq (may be pleased with him) states:

"There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a condition for the validity of Salatul Jumu`ah (Friday Prayer). This is based on the Hadith of Tariq Ibn Shihab who reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Al-Jumu`ah is an obligation (Wajib) upon every Muslim in the community."

However, the scholars differ on how many people are required for Salatul Jumu`ah. There are about fifteen opinions on this issue and Ibn Hajar mentions them in "Fath Al-Bari". The view believed to be the most correct is that Salatul Jumu`ah is valid if there are two or more people present. This is based on the Hadith in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said: "Two or more constitute a congregation."

Imam Ash-Shawkani states: “The other Prayers are considered to be made in congregation if there are two people present. The same applies to Salatul Jumu`ah, unless there is a reason for it to be different. There is no evidence to show that [for the purpose of the congregation] its number should be larger than that for the other Prayers.”

Abdul Haqq says: “There is no confirmed Hadith on the number of people needed for Salatul Jumu`ah.”

Likewise, As-Sayuti holds: “There is no confirmed Hadith that states a particular number (for Salatul Jumu`ah)." This is also the opinion held by At-Tabari, Dawud, An-Nakha`i, and Ibn Hazm.“

Based on the above-mentioned Fatwa, we can conclude that it is valid for you to hold Salatul Jumu`ah with two or more persons, and it is not a condition to reach the number you mentioned in the question.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:




How many raka's of sunnah are to be prayed before and after the farz of the Juma prayers?

When I go to the mosque on Friday the athaan is pronounced, then everyone prays 2 or 4 rakaat. Then athan is again pronounced and immediately after it iqamah. Having prayed 2 Jum'ah rakaat, people pray again 2 or 4 rakaat.

Besides, the imaam when supplicating raises hands then wipes his face and everyone follows him. Is it bid'ah? If so, what should I do (just look at others?)

Answer: Praise be to Allah.

Before the obligatory Jumua prayer, there are two opinions: the Hanafi school of thought says 4 consecutive Rakaats (not 2, then salaam, then 2 more), while the Shafii school of thought says 2 Rakaats only. Both of these opinions are considered valid. As to the number of Rakaats after the Jumua prayer, it is only two according to both schools of thought.

The Messenger of Allah  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to come out of his house on the day of Jumu’ah (Friday) and climb up on his minbar. Then the muezzin would give the Adhaan, and when he finished, the Prophet  (PBUH) would start his khutbah. If there were any Sunnah prayer to be done before Jumu’ah, he  (PBUH) would have told them about it and directed them to do it after the Adhaan, and he would have done it himself. At the time of the Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) there was nothing apart from the Adhaan just before the khutbah.

Hence the majority of the imaams agreed that there is no sunnah to be done at a specific time before Jumu’ah with a specific number of rak’ahs, because that would have been reported from the words or actions of the Prophet  (PBUH), and nothing of that nature has been reported from him. This is the madhhab of Maalik, al-Shaafa’i and most of his companions, and is the well known view in the madhhab of Ahmad.

Al-‘Iraaqi said: “I have not seen anything to indicate that the three imams recommended praying Sunnah before it (Jumu’ah).”

The muhaddith al-Albaani commented:

For that reason this so-called Sunnah is not mentioned by Imaam Al-Shaafa’i, or by Imaam Ahmad, or by any of the other early imaams, as far as I know.

However many saheeh reports indicate that what is prescribed for the Muslim when he comes to the mosque on Friday is to pray whatever Allah wills, he should pray before the imaam comes out. The Prophet  (PBUH) did not specify whether it should be two or four or more. All of that is good, but the minimum is two rak’ahs to “greet the mosque.”  

Prophet  (PBUH) said: “The prayers of the night and the day (i.e., other than the obligatory prayers) are two by two.” (Narrated by Imaam Ahmad and the authors of Sunan with a hasan isnaad; the original is to be found in al-Saheeh without any mention of the day.) 

It is not valid to draw an analogy between Jumu’ah and Zuhr prayer and say that it is mustahabb to offer the regular Sunnah prayer before Jumu’ah as it is mustahabb to do so before Zuhr, because Jumu’ah prayer is different from Zuhr prayer in many ways, and because this analogy is contrary to the apparent Sunnah of the Prophet  (PBUH), which is that he did not offer any regular Sunnah prayer before Jumu’ah.

The best guidance is the guidance of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). If the Prophet  (PBUH) had offered any prayer before Jumu’ah, that would have been narrated to us. As there is no such narration, we know that he  (PBUH) did not offer any regular Sunnah prayer before Jumu’ah. 

Rakat after Jumma Prayer :

There are a number of ahaadeeth which speak of the number of rak’ahs to be prayed after Jumu’ah. 

1- That the number should be two rak’ahs. 

It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah  (PBUH) did not offer any prayers after Jumu’ah until he left, then he prayed two rak’ahs. (Narrated by al-Bukhaari 937 and Muslim 882). 

2-  That the number should be four rak’ahs. 

It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah  (PBUH) said: “When one of you has prayed Jumu’ah, let him pray four (rak’ahs) afterwards.”  (Narrated by Muslim 881). 

The scholars differed concerning that and there are a number of opinions based on the differences of these ahaadeeth. 

The first view is that one should pray two rak’ahs. This was narrated from the actions of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him). 

The second view, which is the view of the majority of fuqaha’, is that it is mustahabb to pray four rak’ahs after Jumu’ah. This was narrated from ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) and his companions, as it says in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (2/40-41). This is also the view favoured by the Hanafis, as it says in Radd al-Muhtaar (2/12-13), and it was the view favoured by Imam al-Shaafa’i in al-Umm (7/176) where he said: We say: he should pray four. End quote. 

The third view is that one has the choice between two and four. 

Imam Ahmad said: If he wishes he may pray two rak’ahs after Jumu’ah, or if he wishes he may pray four. End quote. Al-Mughni (2/109). 

The fourth view is that it depends. If a person is offering the Sunnah prayer following Jumu’ah in the mosque, he should pray four rak’ahs and if he is offering it at home he should pray two rak’ahs only. 

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

Our Shaykh Abu’l-‘Abbaas ibn Taymiyah said: If he prays in the mosque he should pray four and if he prays in his house he should pray two rak’ahs. 

I (Ibn al-Qayyim) said: This is what is indicated by the ahaadeeth. Abu Dawood narrated from Ibn ‘Umar that when he prayed in the mosque he prayed four and when he prayed in his house he prayed two rak’ahs. End quote. (Zaad al-Ma’aad 1/417). 

This view was favoured by the scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas. 

See: Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (6/131). 

The fifth view is that it is mustahabb to pray six rak’ahs. This is what is narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him) and from a number of the salaf. See: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (2/40-41). This is the view favoured by Abu Yoosuf and al-Tahhaawi among the Hanafis. See Sharh Ma’aani al-Aathaar (1/337). It was also narrated from Imam Ahmad as mentioned by Ibn Qudaamah in al-Mughni. Al-Haafiz Ibn Rajab regarded it as strange in al-Qawaa’id (p. 15).  

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

How can we reconcile between the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), “When one of you has prayed Jumu’ah, let him pray four (rak’ahs) afterwards”, and his actions when he  (PBUH) prayed two rak’ahs in his house? 

He replied: 

The scholars differed concerning this. 

Some of them said that he prayed six rak’ahs, two rak’ahs based on his actions and four based on his words. This is one view. 

Another view is that what counts is the words, which is that one should pray four rak’ahs, so the Sunnah prayer after Jumu’ah is four rak’ahs. 

The third view is that it depends. If one prays in the mosque then it should be four rak’ahs and if he prays at home it should be two. 

This is the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him). 

With regard to the prayer after Jumu’ah, Ibn al-Qayyim said in al-Zaad (1/440):

When the Prophet  (PBUH) had prayed Jumu’ah, he would enter his house and pray two Rak’ahs of Sunnah, and he commanded those who had prayed it to pray four rak’ahs afterwards. Our shaykh, Abu’l-‘Abbaas Ibn Taymiyah said: if he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four, and if he prayed at home, he would pray two. I say: this is what is indicated by many ahaadeeth. Abu Dawood reported in his Sunan (1130) from Ibn ‘Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he prayed four and when he prayed at home, he prayed two.

It seems that the choice is between two rak’ahs or four, and differentiating between praying in the mosque or at home.

Praise be to Allah, the matter is broad in scope, i.e., if a person goes home and prays four rak’ahs with two tasleems, that is good and does no harm insha Allah. End quote. (Liqaa’aat al-Baab il-Maftooh no. 214, question no. 8). 

And Allah knows best. 

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:




What is the ruling on one who hears the adhaan and even the iqaamah and then prayer itself, but does not come to pray?

What is the ruling on one who prays Jumu’ah (Friday prayer) only?

Answer: Praise be to Allah.  

If a person hears the call to prayer but does not respond, his prayer (elsewhere and not in the mosque) does not count, unless he has a valid excuse. What is meant is that his prayer is imperfect and he is a sinner because he kept away from the prayer in congregation. Ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “No one keeps away from the prayer (in congregation) except a hypocrite who is known for his hypocrisy”. (Narrated by Muslim, 654)

Not responding to the muezzin implies weakness of faith, lack of religious commitment, not caring about reward and forsaking the houses of Allah.

 With regard to the ruling on one who prays Jumu’ah only, some of the scholars are of the view that one who prays Jumu’ah only is a kaafir, because he comes under the same ruling as one who does not pray at all, because he prays only one of the thirty-five prayers required each week, so he is like one who does not pray at all.

Among those who expressed this view were Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz and Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on them). Some of the scholars said that he is not a kaafir but he is committing a great sin that is worse than riba (usury), adultery, stealing, drinking alcohol etc.



Question :

It is said that the dua during the time of kutbah is accepted or there is a moment in that period when it is answered. However it is also said while listening to kutbah you should not talk and listen carefully. How can we ask dua when we are not allowed to talk or distract our concentration?

Answer: Praise be to Allah.


The saheeh Sunnah indicates that there is a time on Friday when du’aa’s may be answered, and no Muslim happens to ask Allah for good at that time but He will give it to him, as it says in the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari (5295) and Muslim (852) from Abu Hurayrah who said: Abu’l-Qaasim (PBUH) said: “On Friday there is an hour when, if a Muslims happens to pray at that time and ask Allah for something good, He will give it to him.”  

There are many views on when this time is. The most correct are two views: 

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The most correct of these views are two which are mentioned in a proven ahaadeeth, and one of them is more likely than the other. 

The first is that it is from the time when the imam sits on the minbar until the end of the prayer. The evidence for this opinion is the report which was narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh (853) from Abu Burdah ibn Abi Moosa al-Ash’ari who said: ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar said to me: Did you hear your father narrating from the Messenger of Allah (S) concerning the (special) hour on Friday? I said: Yes, I heard him say: I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say: “It is between the time when the imam sits down, until the prayer is over.” 

Al-Tirmidhi (490) and Ibn Maajah (1138) narrated from Katheer ibn ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf al-Muzani from his father from his grandfather that the Prophet (PBUH) said: “On Friday there is an hour of the day during which no person asks Allah for something but He will give it to him.” It was said, When is that time? He said, “When the iqaamah for prayer is given, until the prayer ends.” [Shaykh al-Albaani said: It is da’eef jiddan (very weak)]. 

The second view is that it is after ‘Asr, and this is the more correct of the two views. This is the view of ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam, Abu Hurayrah, Imam Ahmad and others. 

The evidence for this view is the report narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad (7631) from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri and Abu Hurayrah, that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “On Friday there is an hour when no Muslim happens to ask Allah for good at that time but He will give it to him, and it is after ‘Asr.” [In Tahqeeq al-Musnad its says: The hadeeth is saheeh because of corroborating evidence, but its isnaad is da’eef (weak)]. 

Abu Dawood (1048) and al-Nasaa’i (1389) narrated from Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allah that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH said: “Friday is twelve hours in which there is no Muslim who asks Allah for something but He will give it to him, so seek the last hour after ‘Asr.” [Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani]. 

Sa’eed ibn Mansoor narrated in his Sunan from Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmaan that some of the companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gathered and spoke of the (special) hour on Friday, then they parted and did not disagree that it is the last hour on Friday. [al-Haafiz classed its isnaad as saheeh in al-Fath, 2/489]. 

In Sunan Ibn Maajah (1139) it is narrated that ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam said: I said, when the Messenger of Allah (S) was sitting, We find in the Book of Allah that on Friday there is an hour when no believing slave happens to pray and ask Allah for anything at that time, but Allah will meet his need.‘ Abd-Allah said: The Messenger of Allah (S) pointed to me, saying, “Or some part of an hour.”

I said,” you are right, or some part of an hour”. I said, “what time is that”? He said, “It is the last hours of the day.” I said, “Is it not the time of the prayer”? He said, “Indeed, when a believing slave prays and then sits with nothing but the prayer keeping him, he is still in a state of prayer.”

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani. 

In Sunan Abi Dawood (1046), al-Tirmidhi (491) and al-Nasaa’i (1430) it is narrated from Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmaan that Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “The best day on which the sun rises is Friday. On it Adam was created, on it he was sent down (to earth), on it his repentance was accepted, on it he died and on it the Hour will begin. There is no living being but it is in a state of apprehension on Friday from dawn until sunrise fearing the onset of the Hour, except jinn and mankind. On it there is an hour when no Muslim happens to pray and ask Allah for what he needs, but He will give it to him. Ka’b said: Is that one day in every year? I said: No, it is every week. He said: Ka’b read the Tawraat (Torah) and said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) spoke the truth. Abu Hurayrah said: Then I met ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam and told him of my meeting with Ka’b, and ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam said: I know which time it is. Abu Hurayrah said: I said to him: Tell me about it. ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam said: It is the last hour of Friday. I said: How can it be the last hour of Friday when the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “No Muslim happens to pray at that time,” but there is no prayer at that time. ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam said: Didn’t the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say: “Whoever sits waiting for the prayer is in a state of prayer until he prays”? I said: Then this is it.

Al-Tirmidhi said: A saheeh and hasan hadeeth. Some of it is mentioned in al-Saheehayn. [It was classed as saheeh by al-Albaani.] End quote from Zaad al-Ma’aad (1/376). 


According to the view that it is from the time when the imam sits down until the end of the prayer, that does not mean that the one who is praying behind the imam should distract himself with du’aa’ and not listen to the khutbah, rather he should listen to the khutbah and say ameen to the du’aa’ of the imam, and supplicate during his prayer, when prostrating and before the salaam.

By doing so, he will have offered du’aa’ during this special time, and if he also says du’aa’ in the last hour after ‘Asr, that is even better.

And Allah knows best.


9. Permissible excuses for missing DAILY CONGREGATION PRAYERS AND JUMMA prayer

Question :

What are valid excuses for not attending Daily Prayer in jamaa’ah (Cogregation) and Jumma Prayer?

Answer :

It was reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “I nearly decided to tell my servants to gather firewood, then I would have told them to give the iqaamah and start praying, then I would have burned the houses of people who did not attend the prayer.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 201; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani, may Allah have mercy on him; Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 1/69).

Abu ‘Eesaa said: the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah is a saheeh hasan hadeeth. It was also narrated from other companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that they said: “Whoever hears the call [to prayer] and does not respond, his prayer does not count.” Some of the scholars said: this is a strict emphasis: there are no concessions for not praying in jamaa’ah, except for those who have valid excuses.

What are valid excuses for not attending Daily Prayer in jamaa’ah (Cogregation)?

There are several valid excuses for not attending prayer in jamaa’ah, including the following:

1. First Excuse : Sickness

Ibn al-Mundhir (may Allah have mercy on him) said: I do not know of any difference of opinion among the scholars concerning the fact that the sick person may not attend prayers in jamaa’ah because of his sickness.

Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever hears the call (to prayer) and has no excuse not to respond to it -” They said: “What excuse could he have, O Messenger of Allah?” He said: “Fear or sickness, otherwise the prayer that he performed will not be accepted.” (Narrated by Abu Dawood, 464; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani, may Allah have mercy on him , without the phrase “What excuse could he have?”, in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 1/110)

Whatever the case, the sick person has a legitimate reason which means that he is excused from doing acts of worship or may make them up later. In al-Bukhaari it was reported that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was  terminally ill, Bilaal would come to him and call him to pray, and he would say, “Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.”

But not every sickness is an excuse for not praying in congregation. What is referred to here is debilitating sickness.

 Shaykh Muhammad al-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen said in al-Mumti’ (4/438-439): the sickness which excuses a person from attending prayers in jamaa’ah and Friday prayers is the sickness which will cause him great hardship if the person goes to pray.

 The evidence (daleel) for that is as follows:

 1.   The aayah (interpretation of the meaning): So keep your duty to Allah and fear Him as much as you can....” [At-Taghaabun 64:16]

2.    The aayah (interpretation of the meaning): Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope....” [Al-Baqarah 2:286]

3.    The aayah (interpretation of the meaning): There is no restriction on the blind, nor any restriction on the lame, nor any restriction on the sick....” [An-Noor 24:61]

Second Excuse: Heavy rainfall or strong winds:

 Naafi’ said: Ibn ‘Umar gave the adhaan on a cold night in Dajnaan, then he said: Pray where you are. He told us that on a cold or rainy night during a journey, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would to tell the muezzin to give the adhaan, then immediately afterwards he would say: pray where you are. (Al-Bukhaari, 596). 

It was reported that Jaabir said: we went out with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on a journey, and it rained, so he said, “Let whoever among you wishes, pray where he is.” (Narrated by Ahmad, 13827; Muslim, 1127; Abu Dawood, 899).

 It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) said to his muezzin on a rainy day: After you have said ‘Ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasool-Allah (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah), do not say ‘Hayya ‘ala’l-salaah (come to prayer); say ‘Sallu fi buyootikum (pray in your houses). It was as if the people found that strange, so he said: Do you find it strange when someone who is better than I did that? – meaning the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) – Calling people to pray Jumu’ah is emphatically obliged, but I did not want to make you come out to walk in the slippery mud. (Agreed upon. Al-Bukhaari, 850; Muslim, 1128). According to a hadeeth narrated by Abu ‘Awaanah from Ibn ‘Umar: a cold or windy night.

Third Excuse: Fear

Because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abaas quoted above – if it is saheeh – in which it says “ (the excuse of) Fear or sickness.”

 Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughni (1/631):

Fear is of three types: fear for oneself, fear for one’s wealth or property, and fear for one's family.

1.    Fear for oneself: when a person fears that he may be seized by a tyrant, enemy, thief or wild animal, etc., which would cause him harm.

2.    Fear for one’s wealth or property: when a person fears a tyrant or thief and the like, or he fears that his house may be robbed or burned down etc., or he has bread in the oven or something cooking on the stove and he fears that it may burn if he goes and does something else, or he has some good which he left with another person, and if he does not catch up with him, he may disappear with his good. These and similar cases are valid excuses for not attending Jumu’ah prayers or prayers in jamaa’ah.

3.    Fear that one’s child or family may be lost, or a person’s child is lost but there is the hope of finding him at that time, or he has a sick family member who needs him or he has to stay close to the sick person.

     Ibn al-Mundhir said: It was reported that Ibn ‘Umar called upon Sa’eed ibn Zayd in the late morning, and he came to him in al-‘Aqeeq and missed the Jumu’ah prayer. This was the view of ‘Ataa, al-Hasan, al-Oozaa’i and al-Shaafa’i.

Fourth Excuse: When food is ready.

 Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If any one of you is eating, let him not hasten (to finish eating) until he has eaten his fill, even if the iqaamah is being given.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 633)

 Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughni (1/629):

If dinner is ready at the time of the prayer, it is mustahabb to eat first and then pray, because then one’s heart and mind will be more focused. Ibn ‘Umar ate even though he could hear the imaam reciting (in the prayer).

Then he (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

 Our companions said: eating dinner takes priority over the prayer in congregation if one is desperate to eat. Al-Shaafa’i also said something similar.

 But this excuse will not be accepted from someone who deliberately serves food at the time of the prayer in jamaa’ah, because this is a trick.

 Fifth Excuse: Urgent need to pass urine or stools.

 Muslim (869) reported from ‘Aa’ishah that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “You should not pray if there is food ready or if you need to pass urine or stools.” 

Ibn Qudaamah (al-Mughni 1/630) said: this means, if a person is suppressing (the urge to pass urine etc.), it is makrooh for him to pray until he has answered the “call of nature”, whether he fears that he will miss the prayer in jamaa’ah or not.

What this means is that if he stands up to pray and there is something that will distract him from having the proper attitude of humility and presence of mind, and he goes against that and prays anyway, his prayer will still be valid.

Sixth Excuse: When one feels very drowsy 

Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (al-Mumti’, 4/447) said: If a person feels very drowsy, he is excused if he does not attend Jumu’ah or a prayer in jamaa’ah. An example of that is a man who is very tired because of work or traveling, and he is overcome with drowsiness. He can do one of two things: either he can go and pray jamaa’ah even though he is so sleepy and does not know what he is saying, or he can sleep so that the drowsiness will pass and then he can pray in a refreshed and relaxed manner. We say, do the latter, because you have a valid excuse.

For some people, doing wudoo’ gets rid of the drowsiness and refreshes them; in this case a person should not miss the prayer in jamaa’ah. The hadeeth is talking about overwhelming drowsiness.

Seventh Excuse: Strong cold winds on a dark night.

 There are two conditions attached to this excuse:

1.   The wind should be so cold that it is difficult to go out in it.

2.   It should be a strong wind, because a gentle breeze does not cause any difficulty.


Islam excuses the person who is ignorant just as it excuses a person who forgets, or more so. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) excused a person who did not pray well because he did not know how to pray with the proper composure, and he did not order him to repeat his past prayers. He excused a pregnant woman who was experiencing istihaadah (irregular non-menstrual bleeding) because she did not know that prayer and fasting were obligatory upon her even though she was bleeding [because it was not menstrual blood], and he did not order her to make up what she had missed. He excused Udayy ibn Haatim for eating in Ramadaan when he thought that he could distinguish between the (black and white) threads which he had placed beneath his pillow (to determine when the time to start fasting had come), and he did not command him to make up what he had missed. He excused Abu Dharr for not knowing that it was still obligatory to pray even when there was no water; he commanded him to do tayammum but he did not order him to make up what he had missed.

He excused those who rolled in the dust like animals when they heard the command of tayammum, and he did not order them to repeat those prayers. He excused Mu’aawiyah ibn al-Hakam for speaking deliberately during the prayer, because he did not know that this was forbidden, and he did not order him to repeat the prayer. He excused the people of Qubaa’ for praying in the direction of al-Quds after this had been abrogated because they were unaware of this abrogation, and he did not order them to repeat their prayer. The Sahaabah and the imaams after them excused people for committing anything that was haraam if they were unaware of it being forbidden, and they did not impose any punishment for that.

(I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een, 1/273)

Allah excused the man whose joy, when he found his camel in a desolate land after he had despaired of seeing it again, was so great that he said, “O Allah, You are my slave and I am Your lord!”  He did not count him as a kaafir because of that, because he made a mistake that was due to his great joy.

(Shifaa’ al-‘Aleel, 1/138)

But we must note here that the ignorant person does not have a permanent excuse. Whoever is able to learn and does not do so, or is able to ask and seek fatwaas and deliberately does not do so, has no excuse.

After looking at these excuses made by sinners and hypocrites, I thought that to complete the benefit (of this discussion), we should look at some of the excuses which good people make for not taking part in or doing things that are mustahabb, or even waajib. Some examples of that are:

In the field of da’wah and seeking knowledge:

Some people give excuses for not attending worthwhile gatherings of good people and lessons by saying things such as the following:

1.    Study and homework

2.    Boredom

3.    Not feeling comfortable with the other participants

4.    Travel

5.     Fear of making an ongoing commitment

6.    These gatherings and activities are viewed as being like going to school

7.     Conflict between the time of the activity and something else that a person likes to do

8.     Poor leisure program

9.     Distractions at home

10.   No variety in the program

11.   Too many people attending the activity

12.   The presence of new students whom the person does not know

13.   Parents do not let the student go out

14.   Attending to family needs

15.  There is no one available to take care of younger siblings

16.   Family visits

17.   Attending courses for work

18.   Have to do overtime at work

19.   Do not want to stay overnight outside the home

20.   Sickness

21.   Vague excuses such as “I have some problems”

22.   No means of transportation

23.   Emergencies

24.   Not convinced that the activity or class matters

25.   Busy with private tuition

26.   Sleep

27.   Watching sports matches

28.   Appointment to meet a friend

29.   Do not feel that there is any benefit in the class

30.   Has friends who are not involved in the activity and does not want to leave them

31.   Needs of one’s wife and children

32.   Claim that the class is a repeat

33.   The sports/exercise program is limited and is not enough

34.   Too few contests and cheap prizes

35.   Not interested

These excuses vary in strength and validity. Some of them are valid, such as #s 14, 20 and 22; some of them are feeble, such as #s 9, 27, 32.

The problem is that many of those who do not attend do not appreciate how much they have missed and how much reward they have lost by not being there. If they understood what they have missed, they would do their utmost to resolve their situation and strive to remove the obstacles that are preventing them from attending.

Problems must be dealt with according to each individual case.

1 – In the case of those who have weak excuses:

They must be confronted, advised and dealt with according to the level of their excuses. Some people’s excuses may be accepted straight away, whilst still pointing out to them how much they are missing. Others may need to be questioned further in order to make them realize that their excuses are flimsy. Sometimes keeping quiet when a person makes an excuse may be the best response. It may also be useful to combine clear statements with hints.

It is also necessary to advise adults such as businessmen and employees who keep away from lessons and meetings for the purpose of worldly gains, and remind them that that which is with Allah is better and more lasting. They should be reminded that Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Nay, you prefer the life of this world, (16) Although the Hereafter is better and more lasting” [Al-A’laa 87:16-17]

 They should be told how dangerous it is to be distracted by worldly things: 

“Beautified for men is the love of things they covet; women, children, much of gold and silver (wealth), branded beautiful horses, cattle and well-tilled land. This is the pleasure of the present world’s life; but Allah has the excellent return (Paradise with flowing rivers) with Him” [Aale ‘Imraan 3:14 – interpretation of the meaning]

“Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His Cause, then wait until Allah brings about His Decision (torment). And Allah guides not the people who are Al‑Faasiqoon (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah).” [At-Tawbah 9:24 – interpretation of the meaning]

They should be reminded that being too busy with their family and children to learn the religion of Allah is a great loss. Allah has warned us against that: “O you who believe! Verily, among your wives and your children there are enemies for you (who may stop you from the obedience of Allah); therefore beware of them! But if you pardon (them) and overlook, and forgive (their faults), then verily, Allah is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” [At-Taghaabun 64:14 – interpretation of the meaning]

We have to be frank but polite. We can say to them, “If you wanted to come you would have prepared yourself and removed all obstacles. Pray to Allah that you will not be one of those whom He discourages and forsakes and to whom it will be said ....Sit you among those who sit (at home)[At-Tawbah 9:46].”

Those who have valid excuses

There has to be cooperation between the daa’iyahs and those whom they are calling, between the teachers and those whom they are teaching, in order to remove and overcome the obstacles. There are different things that may be done to overcome the problems, including the following:

 1-  Explaining the importance of time and how to make the most of it.

And He it is Who has put the night and the day in succession, for such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude” [Al-Furqaan 25:62 – interpretation of the meaning].

2-   Always having a plan to help achieve a balance between the various interests of sharee’ah as far as possible, because sharee’ah is based on achieving interests and achieving a balance between them as far as possible.

3-    Paying attention to priorities. Things which are fard ‘ayn [obligatory for each individual] come before those which are fard kafaayah [obligatory upon the community, and if some people fulfil them the others are not held accountable]; things which are fard kafaayah come before those which are generally recommended (mustahabb). We should know which things are more important than others so that we can give priority to those which are greater in virtue and reward when there is too much to be done.

4-   Convincing parents that Islamic activities do not conflict with studies, by striving to achieve a high level in one's studies.

5-    Helping students to overcome their shortcomings in their studies so that they will be able to attend activities.

6-    Trying to bring forward or delay some family commitments so that one can attend Islamic activities.

7-   Appropriate direct intervention on the part of the teacher or daa’iyah with the parent or guardian of the student, and intervening by seeking permission for the child to attend.

8-    Coordinating timetables and seeking to reconcile family commitments with Islamic activities, such as taking a student to the activity after a family commitment or bringing him back from the activity before the commitment starts, so that although he may miss part of it he does not miss all of it.

9-   Convincing the student that time is too precious to be wasted in gatherings in which there is no benefit, and that he should teach the people around him about how important time is to him so that they will not distract him with things that are of no benefit to him.

10-  Explaining that attending these activities is a form of relaxation and a means of dispelling boredom, in addition to the benefits of increased faith and knowledge that they bring.

11-  Preparing programs well and filling them with useful lectures and lessons and moving talks so that the people who attend will feel that they are really benefiting.

12-  Using means of motivation in the program such as telling stories, giving examples and paying attention to exciting things that are permissible.

13- Striving to organize a schedule that will leave no room for excuses, such as reducing the number of days that the activity takes up, e.g. making it three or four times a week instead of every day.

14- Not going to extremes by making things obligatory that are not obligatory in sharee’ah, and accepting valid excuses.

15- Striving to resolve sensitive issues among friends and promoting an atmosphere of love. Teaching the participants about the brotherhood of faith by exhorting them and by setting the example.

16-  Turning to Allah and asking Him to make things easy and to help us.


      “This is the day on which they shall not speak, (35) And permission shall not be given to them so that they should offer excuses (36) Woe on that day to the rejecters”. (Al-Mursalat 77:35-37)

We ask You to make us adhere firmly to Your commands and to follow Your guidance resolutely. May we make the most of all good activities and be safe from sin. Grant us the victory of Paradise and save us from the Fire.

May Allah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions, and grant them peace.



Question :          

Dear scholars, as we witness nowadays many Imams delivering Friday khutbahs (sermons) without taking steps or making efforts to make that sermons penetrate people’s hearts and have impact on their lives. Friday sermons are no longer aspiring to many, thanks to the poor styles adopted by many Imams in giving khutbah, as if they don’t care whether people are listening or not. Please, give advice on this issue?

Answer :

The mosque is the heart of the Islamic community and the place where the believers meet day and night to fulfill their obligations to Allah and seek His guidance and help, glory be to Him.

The Friday khutbah is a major Islamic ritual, which penetrates the hearts in moments when people are ready to accept the guidance. That is why the message of the khutbah is extremely effective.

The Imam who studies his subject and presents it well is contributing a great deal in teaching the Ummah and leading its revival. He also contributes to the nation’s materialistic and intellectual development and connects the tomorrow with its glorious past.

I aspire to contribute to bettering the quality of the khutbahs in the masjids (mosques). I would like to make the pulpit a true image of Islam’s pure knowledge and supreme education. The masjid is a place where great emotional and intellectual energy is stimulated. This is especially true on Friday when the worshipers listen attentively to the Imam. The Imam explains to them the teachings of Islam and shows them the rules that Allah has put forth, as well as Islam’s pure knowledge and education.

Therefore, I would like to give these brief guidelines for what I believe is essential for the Friday khutbah. These guidelines will make the khutbah a spring for spiritual and intellectual growth:

1. It is recommended that to make khutbah on one main topic. The speaker who talks about many issues distracts the audience from a focus. The result would be that he alternates between different emotions and ideas. Regardless of his eloquence and fluency, he would never succeed in drawing a clear image about the teachings of Islam. Clarity is crucial for education. Ambiguity and excessive generalization is of no use. The Friday khutbah is not a theoretical session, but a practical explanation of the truth.

2. The sub-themes of the khutbah should flow in a logical sequence. The audience should feel as if they are ascending steps. At the end of the khutbah the audience would reach the conclusion that the speaker has aimed for. The speaker should be selective of which scripts facilitate the objective of his speech.

3. The khutbah is mainly discussing the Islamic values, which are derived from the Book of Allah, the Sunnah, and the traditions of the salaf (the early righteous Muslims). Thus, each and everything in the khutbah should be supported by a Qur’anic verse, an authentic hadith, or an acceptable fact. There should be enough contained in these sources for advice and guidance. Therefore, it is not acceptable at all for a khutbah to include non-authentic stories, let alone fabrications. Scholars permitted the use of non-authentic hadiths for certain actions. However, they put on their use the condition that these hadiths do not violate the core Islamic basics and fundamentals. I think that there is enough authentic hadiths for the learned speaker. Moreover, there are enough stories in the hadiths of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), the guided Caliphs, and the leading scholars.

4. The khutbah should never discuss controversial issues. It should never present only a single Islamic opinion and leave out others that are valid. The mosque should unify and not divide people. The Ummah should be gathered around the fundamentals of iman (faith) that every person agrees upon versus matters that are subject to personal opinion. There are numerous principles that can make good topics. Muslims have suffered enough from divisions among themselves, and it is about time that the mosques provide unity and harmony.

5. A good speaker cannot ignore current affairs of the world or the Islamic community. If his speech is discussing a different place, time, and people, then he is totally discredited. This is precisely why the Qur’an was revealed over a period of twenty-three years. It dealt with events over time, and therefore, was most effective in its guidance. The Qur’an is a cure for social illnesses, but the speaker must diagnose the disease accurately. Then, he would extract from the Book or the Sunnah the required medication. This process requires experience. Otherwise, he would give the wrong medication and as a result would never be able to cure the disease. Furthermore, if he makes a mistake in the diagnosis, then his khutbah is useless, even if it includes a variety of authentic scripts.

6. There is a group of hadiths that promise tremendous rewards for simple deeds. Highly developed scholars warned that these hadiths should not be taken literally. They should be put into context. This means considering the level of sincerity of these good doers. Therefore, a speaker should never include these hadiths in his khutbah without proper explanation. Otherwise, he would create a disproportionate representation of the different categories of deeds.

7. Islamic education is meant to foster morals in society and explain the rewards or consequences thereof. There is no harm in mentioning the rewards for good and the punishment for evil in the Hereafter. But it is not recommended to spend the entire khutbah on intangible punishments and rewards.

8. It is beneficial to mention political and intellectual achievements in Islamic history. Islam founded a great civilization that sprang from the intellectual movement that the Qur’an initiated and the human consciousness that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) awoke. The objective behind such khutbahs is to raise self-confidence among Muslims and to remind them of their global mission.

9. It is well known that some foreign philosophies and atheism infiltrated the Muslim Ummah during its recent historical fall. Thus, it is natural that a good khutbah would refute such ideologies. The khutbah should avoid excessive arguments, but should focus on presenting the positive Islamic facts. It should, moreover, avoid the mentioning of names. The objective of the khutbah, rather, is to protect our spiritual and academic history, and not to defame others publicly.

10. Before facing the audience, a speaker should have a clear image of what he wants to say. He should rethink of his speech to ensure that he is presenting correct arguments that will not cause any negative psychological or social effects. He should also check his evidence. If it is a verse, he is to memorize it well, and if it is a hadith he should narrate it accurately. If he is quoting a book, then he should make his as close to the original as possible. Good preparation is a sign of respect to oneself and one’s audience.

However, sometimes, one is faced with a situation where he is forced to make a speech from the top of his head. The ability to make a speech on the spot comes after much experience with prepared speeches. After some time, one will have accumulated a wealth of speeches that enable the speaker to lecture in numerous situations. However, experience in winging it should not prevent a scholar from good preparation. This shows how much he desires to fulfill his obligation truthfully and how much he appreciates the attentiveness of the people to his message.

11. A khutbah that is concise enables the audience to better focus on its teachings and enables the speaker to convey the message more clearly. Excessive speech causes people to forget many details. The most important objectives of the khutbah might be lost in the midst of all these additions. Can’t one see that a piece of land needs only a certain number of seeds? A farmer must necessarily uproot the extra plants to enable the rest of the plants to grow and bear fruits. Similarly, a human soul does not absorb values unless they are well defined and well presented. Too much talk and presenting too many facts would cause the minds of the listeners to overflow with the information, regardless of how precious those facts are.

Insufficient preparation causes the speech to be too long and thus, boring to the audience. A speaker who moves randomly among rules and instructions is not sure about the effect of his speech and whether or not people are convinced or to what extent. He will keep repeating what he previously said, and will in the process lose the audience’s attention.

Excessive talk might also be caused by a misjudgment of time. A lack of common sense can lead the speaker to think that he needs to say all that he has to say, and that people have to listen attentively, whether or not they like it. This is a grave mistake. Conciseness requires making choices, canceling some parts, and confirming other parts. But random talk requires less effort. Actually, five minutes is enough to convey an immense amount of knowledge. And ten or fifteen minutes is enough for a good khutbah or lecture.”

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:



Question :

The khutbha of Jumma is completed and two fard of Jumma are read. After this the Imam turns and everyone joins in with dua, is this correct?

Answer :  
Praise be to Allah.

What the believer should do is follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), in what he did and did not do. He should do what the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did and refrain from what the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) refrained from. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much”   (Al-Ahzaab 33:21) 

The imam saying du’aa’ following an obligatory prayer – Jumu’ah or any other – and the congregation saying Ameen is something that was not done by the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), or by any of his companions (may Allah be pleased with them). If it was good they would have done it before us. 

Based on that, this action comes under the heading of blameworthy bid’ah (innovation). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever among you lives after I am gone will see great disputes; you must adhere to my Sunnah and the way of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Hold on to it and cling fast to it. And beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (4607) and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces something into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.”  Narrated by al-Bukhaari (2697) and Muslim (1718). 

Al-Shaatibi (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his book al-I’tisaam (1/349-355) du’aa’ in unison after the prescribed prayers, and he explained that this is an innovation (bid’ah), because it was not done by the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) or by any of the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with the,), or the imams after them. 

So we must give up this bid’ah, and strive to recite the dhikrs and du’aa’s that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to say after prayer. The one who wants to say du’aa’ should do so quietly. 

And Allah knows best.

 Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:


12: Friday: Praying tahiyatul masjid upon entering after the khutba starts

Answered by Shaykh Sohail Hanif


If we enter the masjid on Friday and the khutbah has already started, should we pray two rakat Tahiyatul Masjid or not? Please explain in the light of the hadith in which the Prophet (saws) asked a sahabi to get up and pray while he (saws) was delivering the khutbah.

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Both the Hanbali and Shafi schools state that it is recommended for a late comer to the Friday prayer to pray the 2 rakats for greeting the mosque even if the Imam is giving the khutba (Friday sermon). The Hanafi and Maliki schools however consider this to be an impermissible act.

The former two schools take as a basis for this ruling the hadith of Jabir ibn Abdullah found in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said “When of you comes on Friday and the imam has come out [to give the khutba] then let him pray two rakat”

In addition there is the hadith also related by Jabir ibn Abdullah that is found in sahih al-Bukhari that ‘A man came whilst the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was delivering the khutba on Friday so he said “Have you prayed O so-and-so?”. The man replied “”No”. The Prophet said “Stand and pray two rakats”.

Despite the seemingly clear indication of the two aforementioned rigorously authenticated hadiths, the Hanafis and Malikis deemed it impermissible to pray during the khutba. They based this ruling on a number of considerations some of which are mentioned below. The followed discussion is largely taken from the two great commentaries on Sahih al-Bukhari; Faid al-Bari by Imam al-Kashmiri [2:238, Maktaba Haqqania] and ‘Umdat al-Qari by Imam al-‘Ayni [6:230, Bulaq].

Despite the above two hadiths, it is transmitted from the majority of the early Muslims from the Sahaba, including Umar, Uthman and Ali, and the Tabi’in that they did not deem it permissible to pray during the khutba. This was mentioned by Imam al-Nawawi in his commentary on Sahih Muslim quoting Qadi Iyad from his own commentary on Sahih Muslim, whilst Imam al-Nawawi only named ‘al-Hasan al-Basri and others’ from the early Muslims as following the Shafi’i opinion. [al-Minhaj Sharh Sahih Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, 6: 400. Dar al-Ma’rifa]

In addition, not praying during the khutba was the practice of the people of Madina [‘amal ahl al-Madina] which is a mutawatir practical transmission from the Sahaba to the Tabi’in of Madina to the Tabi’ al-Tabi’in upon which Imam Malik based his school.

The fact that the majority of the early community where not applying what is indicated by these hadiths does not mean that they were somehow going against the prophetic guidance. Rather it indicates that they understood from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) that one was not to pray in that time, based on sayings of the Prophet and other considerations not all of which have necessarily been transmitted to us. This is why the practice of the early community is seen as a source of law in itself as their practice was a practical transmission of knowledge, just as their teaching hadiths was an oral transmission of knowledge.

It is agreed upon that speaking is not allowed during the khutba. Among the evidences for this is Allah most high is saying ‘”When the Quran is recited to you then be silent and listen attentively that haply you may be shown mercy’ (Al Araf 7:204)

Imam al-Sawi mentions in his super commentary on the tafsir al-Jalalayn that the Quranic exegetes mention four possible reasons for this verse being revealed [asbab nuzul].

Firstly that it was revealed concerning the khutba. This is the preferred opinion according to Jalaladdin al-Suyuti in the tafsir al-Jalalayn, explaining that the khutba was referred to as ‘Qur’an’ because that is what much of it comprises of.

Secondly that it is a general command referring to whenever the Qur’an is recited.

Thirdly, that it was revealed to stop people from speaking to each other when praying behind an imam as they used to do before speaking during the prayer was forbidden.

Fourthly, that it was revealed concerning reciting the Qur’an aloud when one is praying behind the imam. [Hashiya al-Sawi ‘Ala al-Jalalayn, 2:311, Dar li Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi].

Imam al-Nasafi mentions in his tafsir that the most correct opinion is that it was revealed concerning both reciting behind the imam and speaking during the Friday khutba. [Madarik al-Tanzil wa Haqa’iq al-ta’wil, 1:628, Dar ibn Kathir]

Among the hadiths that enjoin one to silence during the khutba is the rigorously authenticated hadith from the Prophet that he said ‘If you say to the person next to you ‘Be quiet’ on Friday during the sermon then you have committed a blameworthy and rejected act (laghw)’. [Muslim].

And he also said (Allah bless him and give him peace) ‘Whoever performs the ablution and perfects his ablution then comes to the Friday prayer and listens attentively and remains silent he will be forgiven for everything between it and the other Friday with an additional three days and whoever touches pebbles has committed something rejected and blameworthy (laghw)’. [Muslim] This hadith indicates that in addition to speaking, even unnecessarily fidgeting during the khutba is impermissible as in the prayer.

The Maliki Qadi, Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi, mentions in his commentary on the Jami’ of Tirmidhi that if even forbidding the evil, an otherwise obligatory act, is forbidden during the khutba, as indicated by the hadith forbidding one from saying ‘be quiet’ to another person as it prevents one from ‘listening attentively’ to the khutba, then it is a fortiori that praying the two rakats of greeting the mosque should be forbidden during the khutba as firstly it is not obligatory and secondly it takes longer and so interferes even more with the obligation of listening attentively. He also adds that it is established that if the imam has started in the obligatory prayer, a latecomer is not permitted to busy himself with praying any other sunna but must join the imam, then so too the khutba, which has the ruling of a prayer in that it takes the place of two rakats of Dhuhr and one cannot talk or fidget during it. [as quoted in Umdat al-Qari]

There are hadiths and statements from the early Muslims that clearly indicate the contrary. These include the hadith in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad that, ‘The Muslim when he performs the purificatory bath for Friday then comes to the mosque without harming anyone, if he does not find that the imam has come out [for the khutba] he prays as much as he likes and if he finds that the imam has come out, he sits, listens attentively and remains silent until the imam completes his Friday [prayer].’ Al-Haythami mentions in Majma’ al-Zawa’id that this hadith has a reliable chain of narrators.

Furthermore, Al-Tabarani relates in his Mu’jam from ‘Abdullah ibn Umar that he said ‘I heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) say “When one of you enters the mosque and the imam is on the pulpit then there is no speech or prayer until the imam finishes”’.

The chain of transmission of this particular hadith is deemed week but it has exterior considerations that strengthen it [qara’in]. Among them is that it corresponds to what ibn Abi Shayba transmits concerning ibn Umars opinion pertaining to praying during the khutba and also what was transmitted by Nawawi, as mentioned above, that it is the opinion of the majority of the Sahaba and the Tabi’in. It is a legal principle that a week hadith if it is supported by being practiced by the early community it is strengthened such that it is possible to use it to prove a case.

The incident of the man that was told to get up and pray two rakats appears to apply specifically to that particular person. They deduced this for a number of reasons:

4.1 The other versions (riwayas) of the hadith give further information of the incident not provided in the version related by Bukhari.

i. Other versions indicate that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) refrained from continuing with the khutba until he had finished praying. Daruqutni mentions this incident in his sunan from Anas ibn Malik that ‘a man entered the mosque and the Messenger of Allah was delivering the khutba, so the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said to him “Stand and pray two rakats” and withheld from continuing with the khutba until he had finished praying’, and so the man was not guilty of praying during the khutba.

ii. Some versions seem to indicate that the khutba had not yet begun. Al-Nasa’i mentions this hadith under the heading ‘chapter concerning the prayer before the khutba’ from Jabir that ‘Sulaik al-Ghatafani (the man in question) came whilst the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) was seated on the pulpit and Sulaik sat down before praying so the Prophet said to him “Did you pray two rakats?”, he said, “No.” The Prophet said “Stand and pray them”’. A version mentioned in Muslim Sahih indicates the same meaning.

iii. Other versions mention that he was a very poor man and did not have decent clothes to wear to the Friday prayer, and in some versions he had hardly any clothing, so the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) told him to stand and pray so that everybody could see his poverty and give him some charity. Versions to this effect are mentioned in the Musnad and by Ibn Hibban in his sahih, Imam al-Tahawi and Al-Nasa’i in his sunan who mentioned this version under the heading ‘urging to charity’ seeing as it was the key lesson to be gained from the incident.

Of these hadiths is the one mentioned by Al-Nasai from Abu Said al-Khudri that a shabbily dressed man came on Friday and the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was giving the khutba so the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said to him “Have you prayed?’ He said ‘No.’ [The Prophet] said ‘Pray two rakats”. The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) then urged people to give charity [during the khutba]. They gave the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) a number of items of clothing of which two were given to the man…’[to the end of the hadith]

The various versions might seem contradictory as some indicate that the khutba had started, was paused for the man to finish praying and then continued, whilst others indicate that it had not yet started. Badr al-Alam al-Mirtahi in al-Badr al-Sari a super commentary on Faid al-Bari mentions that what must have happened, joining between the various versions, is that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was seated on the pulpit about to deliver the khutba when the man walked in. Upon seeing his poverty stricken state he withheld from starting the khutba and told the man to pray so that everybody present would see him. He (Allah bless him and give him peace) waited for the man to finish and then started with the khutba in which he urged people to give in charity resulting in the man being given some items of clothing.

As for the hadiths that mention that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was delivering the khutba when the man came, the reporters of those hadiths must have meant that he was in the act of delivering the khutba in that he was on the pulpit and was just about to start, and this is a figurative usage of the verb he is delivering the khutba’ [yakhtubu] that the Arabic verb can be used to indicate. [al-Badr al-Sari ila Faid al-Bari, 2:341, Maktaba Haqqania]

4.2 There are many hadiths that make mention of people coming late to the Friday prayer without any indication that they prayed two rakats to greet the mosque or were told to do so. These hadiths include the following:

i. Imam al-Bukhari relates on the authority of Abdullah ibn Umar that ‘While Umar ibn al-Khattab was standing delivering the khutba on Friday a man from the first of the Emigrants from the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) came in. So Umar called to him “What hour is this?” He said “I was busied so I did not return to my family until I heard the call to prayer so I did not do more than performing the ablution (wudu)”

[Umar] said “And ablution as well? And you know that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to enjoin performing the purificatory bath (ghusl).”

Here after being rebuked for not performing the ghusl there is no mention in this or any other version of this hadith that the late comer offered two rakats to greet the mosque nor was told to do so. Other versions of the hadith mention the late comer to be Uthman ibn Affan (Allah be pleased with him).

ii. Imam al-Bukhari relates on the authority of Anas ibn Malik that ‘a man entered the mosque on a Friday and made his way towards the pulpit where the Prophet was delivering the khutba. He faced the Prophet and said “O Messenger of Allah, our wealth has been destroyed and our paths cut off so ask Allah to send us rain”. The Messenger of Allah raised his hands and said “O Allah give us to drink”….to the end of the hadith, and there is again no command to the man to pray nor is it mentioned that he offered two rakats.

iii. Al-Nasa’i in the chapter ‘stepping over peoples necks on Friday’ mentions a hadith in which a man was stepping over people’s necks making his way towards the front of the mosque during the khutba and the Prophet said to him “Sit down for you have caused harm”.

In this hadith there was a direct command for the man to sit so he could not have prayed to greet the mosque.

iv. Imam Muslim relates from Abu Rifa’a that ‘I came towards the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) while he was giving the khutba. I said “O Messenger of Allah, an estranged man has come asking about his religion, he does not know what his religion is”. The Messenger of Allah came towards me and left his khutba until he reached me and was brought a chair, I thought the legs were made of iron. The Prophet sat on it and started teaching me from what Allah had taught him. Then he returned to his khutba and completed it.’

Again no mention is made of this man being told to pray two rakats before or after being taught by the prophet.

4.3 There is no real indication that the man was praying the two rakats for greeting the mosque. The fact that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) asked him whether he had prayed, despite the fact that he had just entered the mosque, implies that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was referring to prayers that the man could have prayed at home, i.e. the pre-Friday sunnas, and not the prayer for greeting the mosque. This being the case, this hadith cannot really be used to prove that one should greet the mosque during the khutba.

As for the other hadith quoted in favour of the Shafi’i opinion, namely ‘When of you comes on Friday and the imam has come out [to give the khutba] then let him pray two rakats.’

The Hanafi scholars have given a number of answers. Kamal ibn al-Humam mentions that the hadith must mean that one should do so provided that the imam is silent as happened in the sunna (referring to the above mentioned incident) or possibly the hadith was said in the time before speech and unnecessary actions were forbidden during the khutba.[Fath al-Qadir, 2:68, Dar al-Fikr] Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani explains why the hadith is not acted upon in it’s outward meaning in his Dars Tirmidhi with the following points:

A general rule when dealing with seemingly contradictory texts with one text forbidding an act and another permitting, is that precedence is given to the text forbidding the act.

This version of the hadith is not supported in its meaning by the Qur’anic text, rather it appears to oppose it.

It is not supported by the general practice of the Sahaba and the Tabi’in.

It is closer to being precautious in one’s religion (ihtiyat) to act contrary to this hadith as nobody says that praying the two rakats for greeting the mosque is obligatory whereas the hadiths forbidding speech and prayer do indicate that it is sinful to pray. Not praying, therefore, avoids sin without any doubt, whereas there are strong indications that praying in that time is sinful. [Dars Tirmidhi, 2:291, Maktaba Dar al-‘Ulum]


To conclude it is clear from the above discussion that the science of hadith and the science of fiqh are by no means one and the same thing despite what many well-meaning though not well-educated Muslims might believe. It is not sufficient to know a particular hadith regarding a particular subject. A legal ruling regarding anything must take into account all the hadiths that pertain to that particular issue along with relevant Qur’anic verses as well as all that has been transmitted from the early Muslim community.

Unless one is able to do all this as well as apply well proven principles to judge between the various evidences, then one has no right to deem oneself right just because one has found a particular hadith that suits one, nor to deem others wrong for acting contrary to that hadith. Rather all must submit to the rulings of the schools of sacred law that transmit the opinions of the imams of the early Muslim community as well as those imams that followed them in knowledge and virtue, may Allah be pleased with them all. Any approach other than this is surely dangerous and destructive.

And Allah alone gives success.

Excerpted, with slight modifications, from:


13. Prayer: Two Jamaa (CONGREGATION)


Can be there two groups praying at the same place (JAMAAH) at the same time? Please tell the proof from the QURAN and SUNAH.


You didn't specify what you mean by "place", therefore the ruling depends where the place is. If the place is not at the Masjid, such as at home, in an office building, in a farm, in the forest, in a rest area (on the road), in a park (picnic area) etc., then it is allowed to have two Jamaa prayers at the same time, although it is strongly recommended to have a single one even if the people in the same area don't know each others (such as in a park). As you know, when Muslims pray together, there is a stronger sense of unity and the larger the number of Muslims are in a single prayer, the more reward there is and the closer they are to God. Also, there is always hope to have someone in the prayer whose supplication (du'a) is accepted so that the reward is shared to the whole group.

On the other hand, if you mean by place the "masjid", then it is totally prohibited to have jamaa prayer at the same time because the very purpose of coming to the Masjid is to unite the Muslims and having two jamaa is contradictory to this essential purpose of a Masjid because it is one way to disunite the Muslims.

There are many proofs for this ruling and we will only mention one stated in Surah at-Taubah (9) verse 107 (please refer to it).

And there are those who put up a mosque by way of mischief and infidelity - to disunite the Believers - and in preparation for one who warred against Allah and His Messenger aforetime. They will indeed swear that their intention is nothing but good; But Allah doth declare that they are certainly liars. (At- Taubah 9 :107)

Imam Qurtubi (one of the greatest interpreters of the Qur'an) explained this verse by stating that when Imam Malik pondered about this verse, he (Imam Malik) said that two Jamaa prayers are not allowed in the same Mosque with two different Imams because it is [a way] of breaking apart the Word (refer back to the verse) and [a way] of negating the wisdom behind this ruling, and an excuse to say: [well], whoever wants to disunite [himself] from the Jamaa has a right to do so, then this person establishes his own jamaa and becomes an Imam, then conflict arises and the order is broken apart.


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